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      Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Channel in Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Unilateral Experimental Nephrotic Syndrome in Normal and Analbuminemic Nagase Rats

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          Abstract

          Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by renal sodium retention and edema formation. In nephrotic rats the site of enhanced sodium retention has been localized in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the rate-limiting constituent of sodium transport in CCD. Amiloride, an ENaC-blocking drug, corrects the abnormal rate of sodium transport in isolated perfused CCD from puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-treated rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that ENaC functional expression is increased in NS. Methods: Unilateral NS was induced by PAN in Wistar rats and analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR). Urinary protein excretion, renal abundance of mRNA and protein of ENaC subunits, as well as the ENaC regulatory serum glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (Sgk1) and Nedd4-2, were assessed. Results: Proteinuria appeared at day 2 in the Wistar rats and NAR. Surprisingly a downregulation rather than the expected upregulation of α-, β- and γ-ENaC mRNA abundance was observed in both Wistar rats and NAR, when the treated kidney was compared with the untreated kidney. The amount of protein of α-, β- and γ-ENaC was not affected by the NS. Sgk1 mRNA expression did not change and Nedd4-2 protein expression was only decreased at days 1 and 2 in Wistar rats. Conclusion: ENaC mRNA and protein expression are not increased in the early phase of unilateral PAN-induced NS. Sgk1, Nedd4-2 and analbuminemia are not important regulatory factors of ENaC protein expression in experimental NS.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel is made of three homologous subunits.

          The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel constitutes the rate-limiting step for sodium reabsorption in epithelial cells that line the distal part of the renal tubule, the distal colon, the duct of several exocrine glands, and the lung. The activity of this channel is upregulated by vasopressin and aldosterone, hormones involved in the maintenance of sodium balance, blood volume and blood pressure. We have identified the primary structure of the alpha-subunit of the rat epithelial sodium channel by expression cloning in Xenopus laevis oocytes. An identical subunit has recently been reported. Here we identify two other subunits (beta and gamma) by functional complementation of the alpha-subunit of the rat epithelial Na+ channel. The ion-selective permeability, the gating properties and the pharmacological profile of the channel formed by coexpressing the three subunits in oocytes are similar to that of the native channel.
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            Aldosterone-mediated regulation of ENaC alpha, beta, and gamma subunit proteins in rat kidney.

            Aldosterone stimulates sodium transport in the renal collecting duct by activating the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). To investigate the basis of this effect, we have developed a novel set of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to the 3 subunits of ENaC and have determined the abundance and distribution of ENaC subunits in the principal cells of the rat renal collecting duct. Elevated circulating aldosterone (due to either dietary NaCl restriction or aldosterone infusion) markedly increased the abundance of alphaENaC protein without increasing the abundance of the beta and gamma subunits. Thus, alphaENaC is selectively induced by aldosterone. In addition, immunofluorescence immunolocalization showed a striking redistribution in ENaC labeling to the apical region of the collecting duct principal cells. Finally, aldosterone induced a shift in molecular weight of gammaENaC from 85 kDa to 70 kDa, consistent with physiological proteolytic clipping of the extracellular loop as postulated previously. Thus, at the protein level, the response of ENaC to aldosterone stimulation is heterogenous, with both quantitative and qualitative changes that can explain observed increases in ENaC-mediated sodium transport.
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              Epithelial sodium channel regulated by aldosterone-induced protein sgk.

               J. Wang,  P E Buse,  F Verrey (1999)
              Sodium homeostasis in terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates is controlled by the corticosteroid hormones, principally aldosterone, which stimulate electrogenic Na+ absorption in tight epithelia. Although aldosterone is known to increase apical membrane Na+ permeability in target cells through changes in gene transcription, the mechanistic basis of this effect remains poorly understood. The predominant early effect of aldosterone is to increase the activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), although ENaC mRNA and protein levels do not change initially. Rather, the open probability and/or number of channels in the apical membrane are greatly increased by unknown modulators. To identify hormone-stimulated gene products that modulate ENaC activity, a subtracted cDNA library was generated from A6 cells, a stable cell line of renal distal nephron origin, and the effect of candidates on ENaC activity was tested in a coexpression assay. We report here the identification of sgk (serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase), a member of the serine-threonine kinase family, as an aldosterone-induced regulator of ENaC activity. sgk mRNA and protein were strongly and rapidly hormone stimulated both in A6 cells and in rat kidney. Furthermore, sgk stimulated ENaC activity approximately 7-fold when they were coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. These data suggest that sgk plays a central role in aldosterone regulation of Na+ absorption and thus in the control of extracellular fluid volume, blood pressure, and sodium homeostasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2005
                November 2005
                26 October 2005
                : 101
                : 3
                : p51-p62
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital Inselspital, Berne, Switzerland
                Article
                86716 Nephron Physiol 2005;101:p51–p62
                10.1159/000086716
                16020936
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86716
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