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      Epidemiological and Etiological Characteristics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Henan, China, 2008–2013

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          Abstract

          Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China.

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          An inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy children.

          Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and may be fatal. A vaccine against EV71 is needed. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial involving healthy children 6 to 71 months of age in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Two doses of an inactivated EV71 vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly, with a 4-week interval between doses, and children were monitored for up to 11 months. The primary end point was protection against hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71. A total of 12,000 children were randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. Serum neutralizing antibodies were assessed in 549 children who received the vaccine. The seroconversion rate was 100% 4 weeks after the two vaccinations, with a geometric mean titer of 170.6. Over the course of two epidemic seasons, the vaccine efficacy was 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.9 to 99.0) according to the intention-to-treat analysis and 97.3% (95% CI, 92.6 to 99.0) according to the per-protocol analysis. Adverse events, such as fever (which occurred in 41.6% of the participants who received vaccine vs. 35.2% of those who received placebo), were significantly more common in the week after vaccination among children who received the vaccine than among those who received placebo. The inactivated EV71 vaccine elicited EV71-specific immune responses and protection against EV71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease. (Funded by the National Basic Research Program and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01569581.).
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            Human enterovirus 71 and hand, foot and mouth disease.

            Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is generally a benign febrile exanthematous childhood disease caused by human enteroviruses. The route of transmission is postulated to be faeco-oral in developing areas but attributed more to respiratory droplet in developed areas. Transmission is facilitated by the prolonged environmental survival of these viruses and their greater resistance to biocides. Serious outbreaks with neurological and cardiopulmonary complications caused by human enterovirus 71 (HEV-71) seem to be commoner in the Asian Pacific region than elsewhere in the world. This geographical predilection is unexplained but could be related to the frequency of intra- and inter-typic genetic recombinations of the virus, the host populations' genetic predisposition, environmental hygiene, and standard of healthcare. Vaccine development could be hampered by the general mildness of the illness and rapid genetic evolution of the virus. Antivirals are not readily available; the role of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of serious complications should be investigated. Monitoring of this disease and its epidemiology in the densely populated Asia Pacific epicentre is important for the detection of emerging epidemics due to enteroviruses.
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              Molecular Epidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Strains and Recent Outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific Region: Comparative Analysis of the VP1 and VP4 Genes

              This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these recent outbreaks, described in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) in 1997, was caused by genogroup B3. This outbreak was followed by large outbreaks in Taiwan in 1998, caused by genogroup C2, and in Perth (Western Australia) in 1999, where viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and C2 cocirculated. Singapore, Taiwan, and Sarawak had HEV71 epidemics in 2000, caused predominantly by viruses belonging to genogroup B4; however, large numbers of fatalities were observed only in Taiwan. HEV71 was identified during an epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in Korea; that epidemic was found to be due to viruses constituting a new genogroup, C3.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                10 March 2015
                2015
                : 5
                : 8904
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China
                [2 ]Henan Key Laboratory of pathogenic microorganisms , Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China
                [3 ]International Emerging Infections Program, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing, People's Republic of China
                [4 ]Global Disease Detection Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, USA
                [5 ]State Key Laboratory of Pathogens and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences , Beijing, People's Republic of China
                [6 ]Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                srep08904
                10.1038/srep08904
                4354091
                25754970
                84e1fcd7-3aef-4348-a660-c999b47935b8
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 11 November 2014
                : 05 February 2015
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