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      Evaluación de los efectos tóxicos y concentración letal 50 del surfactante Cosmoflux® 411F sobre juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) Translated title: Assessment of toxic effects and lethal concentration 50 of surfactant Cosmoflux® 411F on juveniles of cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus)

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          Abstract

          En Colombia, el surfactante Cosmoflux® 411F es usado en fumigaciones de cultivos ilícitos para mejorar la efectividad del glifosato. El uso del Cosmoflux® 411F no está soportado por estudios toxicológicos. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron determinar las lesiones anatomopatológicas derivadas de la exposición al Cosmoflux® 411F y establecer la concentración letal 50 (CL50) a 96 horas en cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). Se utilizaron juveniles de cachama blanca (~40 g) en dos experimentos: 1) toxicidad subletal (n =126) y, 2) determinación de la CL50 (n =84). Las concentraciones del ensayo de toxicidad subletal fueron: 0 mg/l (Tratamiento 0), 0.17 mg/l (Tratamiento 1), 0.34 mg/l (Tratamiento 2), 0.68 mg/l (Tratamiento 3), 1.36 mg/l (Tratamiento 4), y 2.72 mg/l (Tratamiento 5), en sistema semiestático. Para determinar la CL50 las dosis fueron: 3000, 3450, 3900, 4350 y 4800 mg/l de Cosmoflux® 411F. La CL50 obtenida fue de 4417.99 mg/l. En los peces se evidenció leve disminución de la actividad de nado. A la necropsia se halló palidez del hígado y acumulación de material mucoso en las branquias. Por histopatología se halló: vacuolización de hepatocitos, hiperplasia de células epiteliales, de cloro y caliciformes branquiales, vacuolización de enterocitos, aumento de centros melanomacrófagos renales, gliosis, degeneración neuronal e infiltración de células granulares eosinofílicas/células mastocitos en telencéfalo. Los hallazgos concuerdan con lo reportado en peces expuestos a surfactantes, exceptuando las lesiones del sistema nervioso central que pueden tener consecuencias sobre interacciones sociales, de alimentación y reproducción de la especie; siendo necesario profundizar la investigación sobre dicho efecto. El hígado, branquias y piel constituyen órganos blanco de la acción tóxica. La CL50 hallada (4417.99 mg/l) es alta comparada con lo reportado en surfactantes no-iónicos. Se prevé un efecto sinérgico en la mezcla asperjada; sin embargo, el desconocimiento de la estructura del surfactante limita el análisis de su dinámica.

          Translated abstract

          In Colombia, surfactant Cosmoflux® 411F is used for the fumigation of illicit crops in order to improve the glyphosate herbicide activity. The use of Cosmoflux® 411F is not supported by toxicological surveys. The aims of this study were to determinate the anatomopathological lesions due to the exposure to Cosmoflux® 411F and to establish lethal concentration 50 (LC50) to 96 hours in cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). Juveniles of cachama blanca (~40 g) in two assays were used: 1) sublethal toxicity (n= 126) and 2) determination of LC50 (n=84). Sublethal toxicity assay concentrations were: 0 mg/l (Treatment 0) 0.17 mg/l (Treatment 1), 0.34 mg/l (Treatment 2), 0.68 mg/l (Treatment 3), 1.36 mg/l (Treatment 4), and 2.72 mg/l (Treatment 5); through semi-static system. For the determination of LC50 of Cosmoflux® 411F 3000, 3450, 3900, 4350 y 4800 mg/l concentrations were used. LC50 was 4417.99 mg/l. Animals showed slight decrease in swimming activity. At necropsy examination were found paleness in liver and whitish material accumulation in top of gill filament. Histopathologically, it was found fatty degeneration and hepatocyte vacuolization, epithelial cells, chloride cells and mucous cells hyperplasia, enterocyte vacuolization, increase in the expression of melanomacrophage centres in kidney, gliosis, neuronal degeneration and infiltration of eosinophilic granule cells/mast cells in telencephalon. With exception of central nervous system lesions, the findings are according to the reported in literature about surfactant exposure in fish. Central nervous system effects can have consequences on feeding, reproductive and social interactions, due to close telencephalon/olfactory system relationship, being necessary to deep in research to these processes. In same way, liver, gills and skin are target organs of toxic action of this xenobiotic. LC50 is high (4417.99 mg/l) compared with that reported for other nonionic surfactants. Nevertheless, the lack of information about the structure of surfactant restrict the analysis of the dynamic and implications of xenobiotic in the generation of lesions, although, a synergic effect on the mixture is foreseen.

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          The chloride cell: structure and function in the gills of freshwater fishes.

          This review focuses on the structure and function of the branchial chloride cell in freshwater fishes. The mitochondria-rich chloride cell is believed to be the principal site of trans-epithelial Ca2+ and Cl- influxes. Though currently debated, there is accruing evidence that the pavement cell is the site of Na+ uptake via channels linked electrically to an apical membrane vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (proton pump). Chloride cells perform an integral role in acid-base regulation. During conditions of alkalosis, the surface area of exposed chloride cells is increased, which serves to enhance base equivalent excretion as the rate of Cl-/HCO3- exchange is increased. Conversely, during acidosis, the chloride cell surface area is diminished by an expansion of the adjacent pavement cells. This response reduces the number of functional Cl-/HCO3- exchangers. Under certain conditions that challenge ion regulation, chloride cells proliferate on the lamellae. This response, while optimizing the Ca2+ and Cl- transport capacity of the gill, causes a thickening of the blood-to-water diffusion barrier and thus impedes respiratory gas transfer.
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            Neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration in the adult fish brain.

            G K Zupanc (2006)
            Fish are distinctive in their enormous potential to continuously produce new neurons in the adult brain, whereas in mammals adult neurogenesis is restricted to the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. In fish new neurons are not only generated in structures homologous to those two regions, but also in dozens of other brain areas. In some regions of the fish brain, such as the optic tectum, the new cells remain near the proliferation zones in the course of their further development. In others, as in most subdivisions of the cerebellum, they migrate, often guided by radial glial fibers, to specific target areas. Approximately 50% of the young cells undergo apoptotic cell death, whereas the others survive for the rest of the fish's life. A large number of the surviving cells differentiate into neurons. Two key factors enabling highly efficient brain repair in fish after injuries involve the elimination of damaged cells by apoptosis (instead of necrosis, the dominant type of cell death in mammals) and the replacement of cells lost to injury by newly generated ones. Proteome analysis has suggested well over 100 proteins, including two dozen identified ones, to be involved in the individual steps of this phenomenon of neuronal regeneration.
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              Husbandry stress during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

              In aquaculture management it is important to establish objective criteria to assess health and welfare of the fish. Here we show that European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) confronted with husbandry-associated stress (tank cleaning, i.e. scrubbing, and water temperature variation) during early life stages show poorer survival and disease resistance as juveniles. We evaluated several parameters for stress (plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate, hydromineral status), growth performance, the immune response (plasma IgM levels) and the effects of a nodavirus challenge. Principal component analysis allowed the establishment of a stress panel including plasma cortisol, osmolality, IgM levels and weight. Sea bass juveniles reared during early life in high and constant temperature perform best in terms of stress-related parameters assessed by principle component analysis. Variable water temperature triggers dramatic changes in plasma cortisol, osmolality, IgM levels, body weight and susceptibility to nodavirus that suggest a strong and prolonged activation of the HPI axis. Scrubbing induces some disturbances typical for mild short-term, acute stress, viz. increased plasma osmolality and decreased IgM levels, but does not affect plasma cortisol, growth or susceptibility to nodavirus of sea bass. Our data fit well with the concept of allostasis. We discuss the relevance of our work for sea bass aquaculture.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rccp
                Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
                Rev Colom Cienc Pecua
                Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín )
                0120-0690
                December 2007
                : 20
                : 4
                : 431-446
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de los Llanos Colombia
                Article
                S0120-06902007000400003
                84e5d5f2-2757-4684-8839-a3d99ab63d6e

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0120-0690&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE

                Animal agriculture
                surfactantes no iónicos,toxicología ambiental,anatomopathological lesions,cachama blanca,Cosmoflux® 411F,environmental toxicology,LC50,non-ionic surfactants,anatomopatología,CL50,lesiones histopatológicas

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