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      Resveratrol, a Polyphenolic Phytostilbene, Inhibits Endothelial Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Synthesis and Secretion

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol phytoestrogen and one of several constituents of red wine thought to be cardioprotective. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on the expression of the atherogenic chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the absence or presence of resveratrol. MCP-1 levels were determined by ELISA and MCP-1 mRNA was measured. Results: Resveratrol (1–100 µ M) dose-dependently inhibited IL-1β-stimulated MCP-1 secretion, with ∼45% inhibition at 50 µ M resveratrol. This was a Gi-protein- and NO-dependent effect. Resveratrol also significantly inhibited MCP-1 gene expression in a Gi-protein-dependent but NO-independent manner. While resveratrol had no effect on MCP-1 mRNA degradation, it inhibited MCP-1 promoter activity and reduced nuclear factor ĸB and activator protein-1 binding activity induced by IL-1β. Moreover, while hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression was induced by resveratrol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, neither treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin-protoporphyrin IX nor siRNA-directed knockdown of HO-1 had any effect on the inhibition of MCP-1 mRNA or protein secretion by resveratrol. Conclusion: These data demonstrate an inhibitory effect of resveratrol on MCP-1 synthesis and secretion, mediated via distinct signaling pathways. The inhibition of MCP-1 may represent a novel cardioprotective mechanism of resveratrol.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults.

          Alcohol consumption has both adverse and beneficial effects on survival. We examined the balance of these in a large prospective study of mortality among U.S. adults. Of 490,000 men and women (mean age, 56 years; range, 30 to 104) who reported their alcohol and tobacco use in 1982, 46,000 died during nine years of follow-up. We compared cause-specific and rates of death from all causes across categories of base-line alcohol consumption, adjusting for other risk factors, and related drinking and smoking habits to the cumulative probability of dying between the ages of 35 and 69 years. Causes of death associated with drinking were cirrhosis and alcoholism; cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, and liver combined; breast cancer in women; and injuries and other external causes in men. The mortality from breast cancer was 30 percent higher among women reporting at least one drink daily than among nondrinkers (relative risk, 1.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.6). The rates of death from all cardiovascular diseases were 30 to 40 percent lower among men (relative risk, 0.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 0.8) and women (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.7) reporting at least one drink daily than among nondrinkers, with little relation to the level of consumption. The overall death rates were lowest among men and women reporting about one drink daily. Mortality from all causes increased with heavier drinking, particularly among adults under age 60 with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Alcohol consumption was associated with a small reduction in the overall risk of death in middle age (ages 35 to 69), whereas smoking approximately doubled this risk. In this middle-aged and elderly population, moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduced overall mortality. The benefit depended in part on age and background cardiovascular risk and was far smaller than the large increase in risk produced by tobacco.
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            Roles of Drinking Pattern and Type of Alcohol Consumed in Coronary Heart Disease in Men

            Although moderate drinking confers a decreased risk of myocardial infarction, the roles of the drinking pattern and type of beverage remain unclear. We studied the association of alcohol consumption with the risk of myocardial infarction among 38,077 male health professionals who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at base line. We assessed the consumption of beer, red wine, white wine, and liquor individually every four years using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We documented cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease from 1986 to 1998. During 12 years of follow-up, there were 1418 cases of myocardial infarction. As compared with men who consumed alcohol less than once per week, men who consumed alcohol three to four or five to seven days per week had decreased risks of myocardial infarction (multivariate relative risk, 0.68 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.84] and 0.63 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.74], respectively). The risk was similar among men who consumed less than 10 g of alcohol per drinking day and those who consumed 30 g or more. No single type of beverage conferred additional benefit, nor did consumption with meals. A 12.5-g increase in daily alcohol consumption over a four-year follow-up period was associated with a relative risk of myocardial infarction of 0.78 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.99). Among men, consumption of alcohol at least three to four days per week was inversely associated with the risk of myocardial infarction. Neither the type of beverage nor the proportion consumed with meals substantially altered this association. Men who increased their alcohol consumption by a moderate amount during follow-up had a decreased risk of myocardial infarction. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

              Estrogens can upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells by increasing eNOS promoter activity and enhancing the binding activity of the transcription factor Sp1. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and wine, has been reported to act as an agonist at the estrogen receptor. Therefore, we tested the effect of this putative phytoestrogen on eNOS expression in human endothelial cells. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy 926 cells with resveratrol for 24 to 72 hours upregulated eNOS mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (up to 2.8-fold). eNOS protein expression and eNOS-derived NO production were also increased after long-term incubation with resveratrol. Resveratrol increased the activity of the eNOS promoter (3.5-kb fragment) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with the essential trans-stimulated sequence being located in the proximal 263 bp of the promoter sequence. In addition, eNOS mRNA was stabilized by resveratrol. The effect of resveratrol on eNOS expression was not modified by the estrogen receptor antagonists ICI 182780 and RU 58668. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, nuclear extracts from resveratrol-incubated EA.hy 926 cells showed no enhanced binding activity of the eNOS promoter-relevant transcription factors Sp1, GATA, PEA3, YY1, or Elf-1. In addition to its long-term effects on eNOS expression, resveratrol also enhanced the production of bioactive NO in the short-term (after a 2-minute incubation). In concert with other effects, the stimulation of eNOS expression and activity may contribute to the cardiovascular protective effects attributed to resveratrol.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                January 2007
                21 December 2006
                : 44
                : 1
                : 75-84
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, N.Y., and bDepartment of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind., USA; cVascular Health Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland
                Article
                98155 J Vasc Res 2007;44:75–84
                10.1159/000098155
                17191021
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 51, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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