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      Sarcopenia: a chronic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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          Abstract

          Background

          Diabetics are at increased risk for impaired mobility and strength, frequently related to the disease control. Sarcopenia is the reduction of muscle mass associated with the decrease in muscle strength and/or performance, resulting in worse morbidity in chronic diseases.

          Methods

          The objectives of this paper was to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and determine its association with diabetes characteristics, progression, and complications, as well as changes in bone mineral density. The sample consisted of patients with T2DM followed at the outpatient clinics of the Serviço de Endocrinologia e Metabologia do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, from March to August 2016. Participants were men and women above 18 years with T2DM diagnosed at least 1 year earlier. Individuals with chronic diseases, users of any drug that modifies body composition, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 35 or < 18 kg/m 2, and users of illicit drugs or hormonal or nutritional supplementation were excluded. The selected patients answered questionnaires about demographics, eating habits, and disease characteristics, and performed a bone densitometry exam in a dual energy absorptiometry (total body; spine and femur (total and neck)), a handgrip test by manual dynamometer, and an evaluation of the abdominal circumference (AC). The medical records were reviewed seeking diabetes data and laboratory test results. Patients were matched for sex, age, and race with healthy controls [Control Group (CG)]. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was conducted according to the criteria of the Foundation for National Institute of Health.

          Results

          The final sample consisted of 83 patients in the DG and 83 in the CG. The DG had higher BMI, WC, past history of fractures and lower calcium and healthy diet intake (p < 0.005), compared to the CG. The DG presented a higher frequency of abnormal BMD (osteopenia in 45 (53%), and osteoporosis in 14 (19%)) and comorbidities than the CG (p < 0.005). Pre-sarcopenia was not different between groups, but muscle weakness was present in 25 diabetics (18 women) and only in 5 controls (4 men) (p = 0.00036). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 13 (16.2%) patients in the DG and 2 (2.4%) in the CG (p = 0.01168). Pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were associated with altered BMD (p < 0.005), with no association with diabetes duration or control. Body mass index and osteoporosis increased the likelihood to have sarcopenia, but hypertension and healthy diet decreased it.

          Conclusion

          The DG had altered BMD associated with worse glycemic control, and a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, suggesting the need to look for their presence in diabetics.

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          Most cited references35

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          Frailty, sarcopenia and diabetes.

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            Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Bone in Adults

            In an increasingly obese and ageing population, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and osteoporotic fracture are major public health concerns. Understanding how obesity and type 2 diabetes modulate fracture risk is important to identify and treat people at risk of fracture. Additionally, the study of the mechanisms of action of obesity and T2DM on bone has already offered insights that may be applicable to osteoporosis in the general population. Most available evidence indicates lower risk of proximal femur and vertebral fracture in obese adults. However the risk of some fractures (proximal humerus, femur and ankle) is higher, and a significant number fractures occur in obese people. BMI is positively associated with BMD and the mechanisms of this association in vivo may include increased loading, adipokines such as leptin, and higher aromatase activity. However, some fat depots could have negative effects on bone; cytokines from visceral fat are pro-resorptive and high intramuscular fat content is associated with poorer muscle function, attenuating loading effects and increasing falls risk. T2DM is also associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD), but increased overall and hip fracture risk. There are some similarities between bone in obesity and T2DM, but T2DM seems to have additional harmful effects and emerging evidence suggests that glycation of collagen may be an important factor. Higher BMD but higher fracture risk presents challenges in fracture prediction in obesity and T2DM. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry underestimates risk, standard clinical risk factors may not capture all relevant information, and risk is under-recognised by clinicians. However, the limited available evidence suggests that osteoporosis treatment does reduce fracture risk in obesity and T2DM with generally similar efficacy to other patients.
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              Sarcopenia and increased adipose tissue infiltration of muscle in elderly African American women.

              Aging is associated with metabolic, physiologic, and functional impairments, in part through age-related changes in body composition. During the later adult years, skeletal muscle mass decreases and body fat becomes centralized. The goal of the study was to investigate body composition over time ( +/- SD: 2.04 +/- 0.6 y) in healthy, ambulatory, elderly African American women. The hypothesis that a reduction in total-body skeletal muscle (SM) and increases in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) are ongoing in healthy, weight-stable elderly was tested. The study was a longitudinal evaluation of 26 women (age at baseline: 75.5 +/- 5.1 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 27.0 +/- 4.0. Body composition was measured by using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the quantification of SM, total adipose tissue (TAT), VAT, SAT, and IMAT. SM (P < 0.001) and bone (P < 0.05) masses decreased, and regional analyses showed a decrease in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived leg SM (P < 0.05). VAT (P = 0.011) and IMAT (P < 0.001) increased. No changes occurred in TAT (P = 0.45), SAT (P = 0.96), physical function, or food intake. These data show an age-related remodeling of body composition with reductions in SM and corresponding increases in VAT and IMAT. Changes in the previously unstudied depot of IMAT may be involved in the deterioration of metabolic values frequently observed during aging.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                heloisatrierweiler@gmail.com
                gabi_skw@hotmail.com
                thaisajonasson@gmail.com
                estatisticoufpr@gmail.com
                carolina.aguiar.moreira@gmail.com
                vzcborba@gmail.com
                Journal
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetol Metab Syndr
                Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
                BioMed Central (London )
                1758-5996
                3 April 2018
                3 April 2018
                2018
                : 10
                : 25
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1941 472X, GRID grid.20736.30, Universidade Federal do Paraná, ; Curitiba, PR Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1941 472X, GRID grid.20736.30, Internal Medicine, Universidade Federal do Paraná, ; Curitiba, PR Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1941 472X, GRID grid.20736.30, Statistics Department, , Universidade Federal do Paraná, ; Curitiba, PR Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0502 3690, GRID grid.411078.b, Endocrine Division, , Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná (SEMPR), ; Avenida Agostinho Leão Júnior, 285, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, PR 80030-110 Brazil
                Article
                326
                10.1186/s13098-018-0326-5
                5883537
                29632617
                84e9ff3b-d07a-49ba-9a67-53659fd2fea6
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 3 March 2018
                : 20 March 2018
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                pre-sarcopenia,sarcopenia,type 2 diabetes mellitus,muscle weakness,dxa
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, muscle weakness, dxa

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