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      Mitochondria: a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease

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          Abstract

          Cellular metabolic changes during chronic kidney disease (CKD) may induce higher production of oxygen radicals that play a significant role in the progression of renal damage and in the onset of important comorbidities. This condition seems to be in part related to dysfunctional mitochondria that cause an increased electron “leakage” from the respiratory chain during oxidative phosphorylation with a consequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

          ROS are highly active molecules that may oxidize proteins, lipids and nucleic acids with a consequent damage of cells and tissues.

          To mitigate this mitochondria-related functional impairment, a variety of agents (including endogenous and food derived antioxidants, natural plants extracts, mitochondria-targeted molecules) combined with conventional therapies could be employed.

          However, although the anti-oxidant properties of these substances are well known, their use in clinical practice has been only partially investigated. Additionally, for their correct utilization is extremely important to understand their effects, to identify the correct target of intervention and to minimize adverse effects.

          Therefore, in this manuscript, we reviewed the characteristics of the available mitochondria-targeted anti-oxidant compounds that could be employed routinely in our nephrology, internal medicine and renal transplant centers. Nevertheless, large clinical trials are needed to provide more definitive information about their use and to assess their overall efficacy or toxicity.

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          Most cited references 323

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          Human epicardial adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory mediators.

          Inflammatory mediators that originate in vascular and extravascular tissues promote coronary lesion formation. Adipose tissue may function as an endocrine organ that contributes to an inflammatory burden in patients at risk of cardiovascular complications. In this study, we sought to compare expression of inflammatory mediators in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose stores in patients with critical CAD. Paired samples of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were harvested at the outset of elective CABG surgery (n=42; age 65+/-10 years). Local expression of chemokine (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1) and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) was analyzed by TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRNA) and by ELISA (protein release over 3 hours). Significantly higher levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein were observed in epicardial adipose stores. Proinflammatory properties of epicardial adipose tissue were noted irrespective of clinical variables (diabetes, body mass index, and chronic use of statins or ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers) or plasma concentrations of circulating biomarkers. In a subset of samples (n=11), global gene expression was explored by DNA microarray hybridization and confirmed the presence of a broad inflammatory reaction in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with coronary artery disease. The above findings were paralleled by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates in epicardial adipose stores. Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of several inflammatory mediators in high-risk cardiac patients. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers may not adequately reflect local tissue inflammation. Current therapies do not appear to eliminate local inflammatory signals in epicardial adipose tissue.
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            Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions.

            Increasing interest in the health benefits of tea has led to the inclusion of tea extracts in dietary supplements and functional foods. However, epidemiologic evidence regarding the effects of tea consumption on cancer and cardiovascular disease risk is conflicting. While tea contains a number of bioactive chemicals, it is particularly rich in catechins, of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Catechins and their derivatives are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects ascribed to tea. Tea catechins and polyphenols are effective scavengers of reactive oxygen species in vitro and may also function indirectly as antioxidants through their effects on transcription factors and enzyme activities. The fact that catechins are rapidly and extensively metabolized emphasizes the importance of demonstrating their antioxidant activity in vivo. In humans, modest transient increases in plasma antioxidant capacity have been demonstrated following the consumption of tea and green tea catechins. The effects of tea and green tea catechins on biomarkers of oxidative stress, especially oxidative DNA damage, appear very promising in animal models, but data on biomarkers of in vivo oxidative stress in humans are limited. Larger human studies examining the effects of tea and tea catechin intake on biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA are needed.
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              Targeting antioxidants to mitochondria by conjugation to lipophilic cations.

              Mitochondrial oxidative damage contributes to a range of degenerative diseases. Consequently, the selective inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative damage is a promising therapeutic strategy. One way to do this is to invent antioxidants that are selectively accumulated into mitochondria within patients. Such mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have been developed by conjugating the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation to an antioxidant moiety, such as ubiquinol or alpha-tocopherol. These compounds pass easily through all biological membranes, including the blood-brain barrier, and into muscle cells and thus reach those tissues most affected by mitochondrial oxidative damage. Furthermore, because of their positive charge they are accumulated several-hundredfold within mitochondria driven by the membrane potential, enhancing the protection of mitochondria from oxidative damage. These compounds protect mitochondria from damage following oral delivery and may therefore form the basis for mitochondria-protective therapies. Here we review the background and work to date on this class of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                simona.granata@univr.it
                alessandra.dallagassa@gmail.com
                paola.tomei@univr.it
                antonio.lupo@univr.it
                045.8122528 , gianluigi.zaza@univr.it
                Journal
                Nutr Metab (Lond)
                Nutr Metab (Lond)
                Nutrition & Metabolism
                BioMed Central (London )
                1743-7075
                25 November 2015
                25 November 2015
                2015
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University-Hospital of Verona, Piazzale A. Stefani 1, 37126 Verona, VR Italy
                Article
                44
                10.1186/s12986-015-0044-z
                4660721
                © Granata et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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