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      Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Health: Scientific Advances, Ongoing Controversies, and Emerging Issues

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      Annual Review of Clinical Psychology

      Annual Reviews

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          The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

           L Radloff (1977)
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            Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review.

            Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its impact on several types of health effects. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the relationships between multiple forms of perceived discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect health, including through psychological and physiological stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134 samples suggests that when weighting each study's contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a significant negative effect on both mental and physical health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly heightened stress responses and is related to participation in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors. These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived discrimination to negative health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
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              Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socio-economic Status, Stress and Discrimination.

              This article examines the extent to which racial differences in socio-economic status (SES), social class and acute and chronic indicators of perceived discrimination, as well as general measures of stress can account for black-white differences in self-reported measures of physical and mental health. The observed racial differences in health were markedly reduced when adjusted for education and especially income. However, both perceived discrimination and more traditional measures of stress are related to health and play an incremental role in accounting for differences between the races in health status. These findings underscore the need for research efforts to identify the complex ways in which economic and non-economic forms of discrimination relate to each other and combine with socio-economic position and other risk factors and resources to affect health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
                Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol.
                Annual Reviews
                1548-5943
                1548-5951
                March 28 2015
                March 28 2015
                : 11
                : 1
                : 407-440
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112728
                © 2015

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