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      IgA Nephropathy in Czech Patients - Are We Able Reliably Predict the Outcome?

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The aim of our study was to retrospectively analyse data of 520 Czech patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and to specify the risk factors affecting renal survival of IgAN patients. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the effects of different variables on renal survival during a median follow up of six years. McNemar´s test was used to analyse the progression of renal function according to Bartosik´s formula. Results: In our retrospective analysis of 520 Czech IgAN patients Cox proportional hazards regression model with five variables [hypertension, sex, GFR, proteinuria, age] was used. Significant regression coefficient was found for GFR, hypertension and proteinuria. Using stepwise algorithm GFR (OR = 3.09), hypertension (OR = 2.09) and proteinuria (OR = 1.97) were found as the most important factors for renal survival in our group of IgAN patients. Among patients with CKD 3 we found significantly better renal survival in patients with proteinuria < 1g/day compared to patients with higher proteinuria. We did not find the significant difference between predicted progression of renal function due to Bartosik´s formula and real progression of renal parametres assessed by GFR at the end of the follow up in our group of IgAN patients. Conclusion: Our retrospective study of 520 Czech IgAN patients confirmed GFR, hypertension and proteinuria as the most important factors affecting the prognosis of IgAN patients. We validated Toronto Bartosik´s formula to predict prognosis of IgAN patients.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Remission of proteinuria improves prognosis in IgA nephropathy.

          Proteinuria has been shown to be an adverse prognostic factor in IgA nephropathy. The benefit of achieving a partial remission of proteinuria, however, has not been well described. We studied 542 patients with biopsy-proven primary IgA nephropathy in the Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry and found that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declined at -0.38 +/- 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2/mo overall, with 30% of subjects reaching end-stage renal disease. Multivariate analysis revealed that proteinuria during follow-up was the most important predictor of the rate of GFR decline. Among the 171 patients with 3 g/d (n = 121) lost renal function 25-fold faster than those with or =3 g/d who achieved a partial remission (<1 g/d) had a similar course to patients who had < or =1 g/d throughout, and fared far better than patients who never achieved remission. These results underscore the relationship between proteinuria and prognosis in IgA nephropathy and establish the importance of remission.
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            Long-term renal survival and related risk factors in patients with IgA nephropathy: results from a cohort of 1155 cases in a Chinese adult population.

            We sought to identify the long-term renal survival rate and related risk factors of progression to renal failure in Chinese adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and to quantify the effects of proteinuria during the follow-up on outcome in patients with IgAN. Patients with biopsy-proven primary IgAN in the Nanjing Glomerulonephritis Registry were studied. Renal survival and the relationships between clinical parameters and renal outcomes were assessed. One thousand one hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled in this study. The 10-, 15- and 20-year cumulative renal survival rates, calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, were 83, 74 and 64%, respectively. At the time of biopsy, proteinuria>1.0 g/day [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, P 1.0 g/day were associated with a 9.4-fold risk than patients with TA-P<1.0 g/day (P<0.001) and 46.5-fold risk than those with TA-P<0.5 g/day (P<0.001). Moreover, patients who achieved TA-P<0.5 g/day benefit much more than those with TA-P between 0.5 and 1.0 g/day (HR 13.1, P<0.001). Thirty-six percent of Chinese adult patients with IgAN progress to end stage renal disease within 20 years. Five clinical features-higher proteinuria, hypertension, impaired renal function, hypoproteinemia and hyperuricemia-are independent predictors of an unfavorable renal outcome. The basic goal of anti-proteinuric therapy for Chinese patients is to lower proteinuria<1.0 g/day and the optimal goal is to lower proteinuria to <0.5 g/day.
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              Predicting progression in IgA nephropathy.

               G Lajoie,  L Sugar,  D Cattran (2001)
              Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is one of the most common primary types of glomerulonephritis to progress to end-stage renal disease. Its variable and often long natural history makes it difficult to predict outcome. We investigated the association of the rate of renal function decline based on the slope of creatinine clearance over time with demographic, clinical, laboratory, and histological data from 298 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy with a mean follow-up of 70 months. Using univariate analysis, urinary protein excretion at baseline and Lee pathological grading, as well as mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urinary protein excretion during follow-up, were associated with the rate of deterioration in renal function. Of these, only MAP and urinary protein excretion during follow-up were identified as independent factors by multiple linear regression analysis. The combination of best accuracy of prediction and shortest observation time using these two parameters was reached between the second and third years of follow-up. A semiquantitative method of estimating the rate of progression by using these factors was developed. These results indicate that MAP and severity of proteinuria over time are the most important prognostic indicators of IgA nephropathy. The potential relevance of the algorithm in patient management is shown.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                December 2014
                14 December 2014
                : 39
                : 6
                : 555-562
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, General Teaching Hospital and 1 st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University; bDepartment of Statistic analysis, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague; cDepartment of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove; dIIIrd Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc; eDepartment of Pathology, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                *Assoc.Prof. Dita Maixnerova, MD, Ph.D., Department of Nephrology, General Teaching Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine,, Charles University of Prague, U Nemocnice 2, 128 08 Prague 2 (Czech Republic), Tel. +420 224 966 790, Fax +420 224 962 585, E-Mail ditama@centrum.cz
                Article
                368467 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:555-562
                10.1159/000368467
                25531750
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Risk factors, IgA nephropathy, Prognosis, ESRD

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