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      Dialysis-Related Genotoxicity: Sister Chromatid Exchanges and DNA Lesions in T and B Lymphocytes of Uremic Patients. Genomic Damage in Patients on Hemodiafiltration

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          Background/Aims: Patients with chronic renal failure show the presence of massive oxidative genome damage but the role played by dialysis is still a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to verify the genomic damage in B- and T-lymphocyte subpopulations of uremic patients after a single hemodiafiltration session. Methods: We enrolled 30 patients on maintenance acetate-free biofiltration and 25 age-matched healthy volunteers and studied chromosomal alterations. Results: Our data show that the basal levels of DNA damage, the number of sister chromatid exchanges and basal high-frequency cells levels are significantly higher in patients on hemodiafiltration than in controls and in T lymphocytes than in B cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that hemodialytic treatment could represent a potential source of damage, maybe through the oxidative action of the extracorporeal circuit components, which might explain the well-known T-specific immunodeficiency correlated with uremia.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis.

          Cardiovascular disease is common in patients on long-term dialysis, and it accounts for 44 percent of overall mortality in this group. We undertook a study to assess long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients in the United States who were receiving long-term dialysis. Patients on dialysis who were hospitalized during the period from 1977 to 1995 for a first myocardial infarction after the initiation of renal-replacement therapy were retrospectively identified from the U.S. Renal Data System data base. Overall mortality and mortality from cardiac causes (including all in-hospital deaths) were estimated by the life-table method. The effect of independent predictors on survival was examined in a Cox regression model with adjustment for existing illnesses. The overall mortality (+/-SE) after acute myocardial infarction among 34,189 patients on long-term dialysis was 59.3+/-0.3 percent at one year, 73.0+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 89.9+/-0.2 percent at five years. The mortality from cardiac causes was 40.8+/-0.3 percent at one year, 51.8+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 70.2+/-0.4 percent at five years. Patients who were older or had diabetes had higher mortality than patients without these characteristics. Adverse outcomes occurred even in patients who had acute myocardial infarction in 1990 through 1995. Also, the mortality rate after myocardial infarction was considerably higher for patients on long-term dialysis than for renal-transplant recipients. Patients on dialysis who have acute myocardial infarction have high mortality from cardiac causes and poor long-term survival.
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            Differential giemsa staining of sister chromatids and the study of sister chromatid exchanges without autoradiography

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              Hepatitis B vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. Immunogenicity and efficacy.

              We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine (Heptavax-B) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 1311 patients receiving hemodialysis in the United States. After three doses of vaccine (40 micrograms each) had been administered, 63 per cent of the patients were antibody-positive. After correction for possible passive transfer of antibodies by blood transfusion, only 50 per cent of vaccine recipients were considered vaccine responders. The incidence of hepatitis B viral infection during the 25 months of the trial was much lower than had been anticipated and was virtually the same in the vaccine and placebo recipients (6.4 and 5.4 per cent, respectively). Four cases of hepatitis B occurred in patients who had an apparent antibody response to the vaccine, but in each case either antibody had reached low or undetectable levels before hepatitis B surface antigen was detected or the patient had been receiving immunosuppressive therapy. This study did not demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine in a population of patients receiving dialysis in whom both the rate of antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine and the viral attack rate were low. Other measures to control transmission of hepatitis B virus in dialysis units, including surveillance for hepatitis B surface antigen and isolation of patients who are positive for the antigen, must be continued.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                21 December 2006
                : 24
                : 5-6
                : 569-574
                aChair of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, bDepartment of Medicina sociale e del Territorio-Medicina del Lavoro, and cDepartment of Surgical Science, Unit of Microbiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                97080 Blood Purif 2006;24:569–574
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 6
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