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      Isotretinoin and FoxO1 : A scientific hypothesis

      Dermato-Endocrinology

      Informa UK Limited

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          Signaling in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy.

           Marco Sandri (2008)
          Muscle performance is influenced by turnover of contractile proteins. Production of new myofibrils and degradation of existing proteins is a delicate balance, which, depending on the condition, can promote muscle growth or loss. Protein synthesis and protein degradation are coordinately regulated by pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, availability of nutrients, and growth factors. Understanding the signaling that regulates muscle mass may provide potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.
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            AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras and PKB through p27kip1.

            The Forkhead transcription factors AFX, FKHR and FKHR-L1 are orthologues of DAF-16, a Forkhead factor that regulates longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we show that overexpression of these Forkhead transcription factors causes growth suppression in a variety of cell lines, including a Ras-transformed cell line and a cell line lacking the tumour suppressor PTEN. Expression of AFX blocks cell-cycle progression at phase G1, independent of functional retinoblastoma protein (pRb) but dependent on the cell-cycle inhibitor p27kip1. Indeed, AFX transcriptionally activates p27kip1, resulting in increased protein levels. We conclude that AFX-like proteins are involved in cell-cycle regulation and that inactivation of these proteins is an important step in oncogenic transformation.
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              Long-term results for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated on a randomized trial of myeloablative therapy followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid: a children's oncology group study.

              PURPOSE We assessed the long-term outcome of patients enrolled on CCG-3891, a high-risk neuroblastoma study in which patients were randomly assigned to undergo autologous purged bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) or to receive chemotherapy, and subsequent treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (cis-RA). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients received the same induction chemotherapy, with random assignment (N = 379) to consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy, total-body irradiation, and ABMT versus three cycles of intensive chemotherapy. Patients who completed consolidation without disease progression were randomly assigned to receive no further therapy or cis-RA for 6 months. Results The event-free survival (EFS) for patients randomly assigned to ABMT was significantly higher than those randomly assigned to chemotherapy; the 5-year EFS (mean +/- SE) was 30% +/- 4% versus 19% +/- 3%, respectively (P = .04). The 5-year EFS (42% +/- 5% v 31% +/- 5%) from the time of second random assignment was higher for cis-RA than for no further therapy, though it was not significant. Overall survival (OS) was significantly higher for each random assignment by a test of the log(-log(.)) transformation of the survival estimates at 5 years (P < .01). The 5-year OS from the second random assignment of patients who underwent both random assignments and who were assigned to ABMT/cis-RA was 59% +/- 8%; for ABMT/no cis-RA, it was 41% +/- 8% [corrected]; for continuing chemotherapy/cis-RA, it was 38% +/- 7%; and for chemotherapy/no cis-RA, it was 36% +/- 7%. Myeloablative therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue result in significantly better 5-year EFS than nonmyeloablative chemo therapy; neither myeloablative therapy with [corrected] autologous hematopoietic cell rescue nor cis-RA given after consolidation therapy significantly improved OS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Dermato-Endocrinology
                Informa UK Limited
                1938-1980
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                October 27 2014
                July 2011
                : 3
                : 3
                : 141-165
                Article
                10.4161/derm.15331
                © 2011

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