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      Non-surgical porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis is associated with worse long-term outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases

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          Abstract

          Objective: Our aim was to assess the risk factors for non-surgery-related portal and mesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) and its impact on the outcomes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

          Methods: All patients with a concurrent diagnosis of IBD and PMVT between January 2004 and October 2013 were identified from the electronic medical record (study group; n = 20). Patients were matched for age, sex, and IBD phenotype with control IBD patients who had no PMVT, with a ratio of 1:3 (control group; n = 60). Risk factors for PMVT and IBD-related outcomes at one year after diagnosis of PMVT were compared between the two groups.

          Results: Of the 20 patients in the Study group, 6 (30%) had UC, 14 (70%) had CD and 11 (55%) were male. On multivariable analysis, inpatient status (odds ratio [OR] 6.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88–25.12) and baseline corticosteroid use (OR 4.39; 95% CI 1.27–15.19) were found to be independent risk factors for the development of PMVT. At one-year follow-up, PMVT patients were more likely to have an adverse outcome of IBD, including subsequent emergency room visit (26.3% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.003), hospitalization for medical management (60.0% vs. 20.0%; P = 0.001) or IBD-related surgery (65.0% vs. 26.7%; P = 0.003) than the non-PMVT controls. In multivariable analysis, PMVT (OR 5.19; 95% CI 1.07–25.28) and inpatient status (OR 8.92; 95% CI 1.33–59.84) were found to be independent risk factors for poor outcome, whereas baseline immunomodulator use (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01–0.51) was found to be a protective factor.

          Conclusions: IBD patients who were inpatients or receiving corticosteroid therapy had an increased risk of the development of PMVT. The presence of PMVT was associated with poor clinical outcomes in IBD.

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          Most cited references24

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          Enoxaparin prevents portal vein thrombosis and liver decompensation in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

          We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, in preventing portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with advanced cirrhosis. In a nonblinded, single-center study, 70 outpatients with cirrhosis (Child-Pugh classes B7-C10) with demonstrated patent portal veins and without hepatocellular carcinoma were assigned randomly to groups that were given enoxaparin (4000 IU/day, subcutaneously for 48 weeks; n = 34) or no treatment (controls, n = 36). Ultrasonography (every 3 months) and computed tomography (every 6 months) were performed to check the portal vein axis. The primary outcome was prevention of PVT. Radiologists and hepatologists that assessed outcomes were blinded to group assignments. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 48 weeks, none of the patients in the enoxaparin group had developed PVT, compared with 6 of 36 (16.6%) controls (P = .025). At 96 weeks, no patient developed PVT in the enoxaparin group, compared with 10 of 36 (27.7%) controls (P = .001). At the end of the follow-up period, 8.8% of patients in the enoxaparin group and 27.7% of controls developed PVT (P = .048). The actuarial probability of PVT was lower in the enoxaparin group (P = .006). Liver decompensation was less frequent among patients given enoxaparin (11.7%) than controls (59.4%) (P < .0001); overall values were 38.2% vs 83.0%, respectively (P < .0001). The actuarial probability of liver decompensation was lower in the enoxaparin group (P < .0001). Eight patients in the enoxaparin group and 13 controls died. The actuarial probability of survival was higher in the enoxaparin group (P = .020). No relevant side effects or hemorrhagic events were reported. In a small randomized controlled trial, a 12-month course of enoxaparin was safe and effective in preventing PVT in patients with cirrhosis and a Child-Pugh score of 7-10. Enoxaparin appeared to delay the occurrence of hepatic decompensation and to improve survival. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Vascular disorders of the liver.

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              The incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study.

              There is an impression mostly from specialty clinics that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic disorders. Our aim was to determine the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) from a population-based database of IBD patients and, to compare the incidence rates to that of an age, gender and geographically matched population control group. IBD patients identified from the administrative claims data of the universal provincial insurance plan of Manitoba were matched 1:10 to randomly selected members of the general population without IBD by year, age, gender, and postal area of residence using Manitoba Health's population registry. The incidence of hospitalization for DVT and PE was calculated from hospital discharge abstracts using ICD-9-CM codes 451.1, 453.x for DVT and 415.1x for PE. Rates were calculated based on person-years of follow-up for 1984-1997. Comparisons to the population cohort yielded age-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR). Rates were calculated based on person-years of follow-up (Crohn's disease = 21,340, ulcerative colitis = 19,665) for 1984-1997. In Crohn's disease the incidence rate of DVT was 31.4/10,000 person-years and of PE was 10.3/10,000 person-years. In ulcerative colitis the incidence rates were 30.0/10,000 person-years for DVT and 19.8/10,000 person-years for PE. The IRR was 4.7 (95% CI, 3.5-6.3) for DVT and 2.9 (1.8-4.7) for PE in Crohn's disease and 2.8 (2.1-3.7) for DVT and 3.6 (2.5-5.2) for PE, in ulcerative colitis. There were no gender differences for IRR. The highest rates of DVT and PE were seen among patients over 60 years old; however the highest IRR for these events were among patients less than 40 years. IBD patients have a threefold increased risk of developing DVT or PE.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf)
                Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf)
                gastro
                gastro
                Gastroenterology Report
                Oxford University Press
                2052-0034
                August 2016
                28 April 2015
                : 4
                : 3
                : 210-215
                Affiliations
                1Department of Internal Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA
                2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland OH, USA
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, A31 Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Tel: +1-216-444-6305; Email: shenb@ 123456ccf.org
                Article
                gov012
                10.1093/gastro/gov012
                4976678
                25922204
                8516ad6b-0b79-4342-a82d-808df2dc491a
                © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 10 January 2015
                : 22 February 2015
                : 1 March 2015
                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Articles

                inflammatory bowel diseases,portal vein thrombosis,outcomes,risk factors

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