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      Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes therapy – focus on alogliptin

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          Abstract

          Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and progressive disease that is showing an apparently unstoppable increase worldwide. Although there is general agreement on the first-line use of metformin in most patients with type 2 diabetes, the ideal drug sequence after metformin failure is an area of increasing uncertainty. New treatment strategies target pancreatic islet dysfunction, in particular gut-derived incretin hormones. Inhibition of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) slows degradation of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and thereby enhances and prolongs the action of the endogenous incretin hormones. The five available DPP-4 inhibitors, also known as ‘gliptins’ (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin), are small molecules used orally with similar overall clinical efficacy and safety profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. The main differences between the five gliptins on the market include: potency, target selectivity, oral bioavailability, long or short half-life, high or low binding to plasma proteins, metabolism, presence of active or inactive metabolites, excretion routes, dosage adjustment for renal and liver insufficiency, and potential drug–drug interactions. On average, treatment with gliptins is expected to produce a mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c) decrease of 0.5%–0.8%, with about 40% of diabetic subjects at target for the HbA 1c goal <7%. There are very few studies comparing DPP-4 inhibitors. Alogliptin as monotherapy or added to metformin, pioglitazone, glibenclamide, voglibose, or insulin therapy significantly improves glycemic control compared with placebo in adult or elderly patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. In the EXAMINE trial, alogliptin is being compared with placebo on cardiovascular outcomes in approximately 5,400 patients with type 2 diabetes. In clinical studies, DPP-4 inhibitors were generally safe and well tolerated. However, there are limited data on their tolerability, due to their relatively recent marketing approval. Alogliptin will be used most when avoidance of hypoglycemic events is paramount, such as in patients with congestive heart failure, renal failure, and liver disease, and in the elderly.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Emerging DPP-4 inhibitors: focus on linagliptin for type 2 diabetes

          The first dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes became available in 2006. Since then, the number of DPP-4 inhibitors has increased and DPP-4 inhibitors have developed into an important drug class. DPP-4 inhibitors act by increasing endogenous GLP-1 and GIP concentrations. Via this mechanism, insulin secretion is glucose-dependently stimulated and glucagon secretion inhibited. This results in a low risk for hypoglycemia. Furthermore, DPP-4 inhibitors are weight-neutral. Linagliptin is a novel DPP-4 inhibitor that, in contrast to the other members of this drug class, is eliminated by a biliary/hepatic route rather than by renal elimination. This property allows the use of linagliptin in type 2 diabetic patients with normal kidney function as well as in patients with renal insufficiency without dose adjustments. In comparative clinical studies, linagliptin was noninferior to other established antidiabetic agents, especially to metformin and sulfonylurea. It showed a superior safety profile over glimepiride regarding hypoglycemia, weight gain, a composite cardiovascular endpoint, and stroke. This review gives an overview on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin in comparison to the classical oral antidiabetic drugs as well as to the other DPP-4 inhibitors.
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            Alogliptin as an initial therapy in patients with newly diagnosed, drug naïve type 2 diabetes: a randomized, control trial.

             Eiji Kutoh,  Y Ukai (2012)
            The objectives of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of alogliptin versus very low fat/calorie traditional Japanese diet (non-inferiority trial) as an initial therapy for newly diagnosed, drug naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Study design was prospective, randomized, non-double-blind, controlled trial. The study was conducted at outpatient units of municipal hospital. Patients were newly diagnosed, drug naïve patients who visited the outpatient units. The patients randomly received 12.5-25 mg/day alogliptin (n = 25) or severe low calorie traditional Japanese diet (n = 26). The procedure of this trial was assessed by the consolidated standards of reporting trials statement. The primary end point was the change of HbA1c at 3 months. Secondary end points included the changes of fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-R (HOMA-R), HOMA-B, body mass index (BMI), and lipid parameters. Similar, significant reductions of HbA1c levels were observed in both groups (from 10.51 to 8.74% for alogliptin and from 10.01 to 8.39% for traditional Japanese diet) without any clinically significant adverse events. In the alogliptin group, some subjects (16%) had mild hypoglycemic evens which could be managed by taking glucose drinks by themselves. HOMA-B significantly increased in both groups with varying degrees, whereas HOMA-R significantly decreased only in the Japanese diet group. Atherogenic lipids, such as, total cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased in both groups. BMI had no change in the alogliptin group, whereas it significantly decreased in the Japanese diet group. (1) Concerning its glycemic efficacy, alogliptin is effective and non-inferior to traditional Japanese diet as an initial therapeutic option for newly diagnosed T2DM. However, regarding the reductions of body weight and insulin resistance, traditional Japanese diet is superior. (2) Both alogliptin and traditional Japanese diet have favorable effects on atherogenic lipid profiles.
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              Choosing between GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors: A Pharmacological Perspective

              In recent years the incretin therapies have provided a new treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The incretin therapies focus on the increasing levels of the two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). This results in increased glucose dependent insulin synthesis and release. GLP-1 receptor agonists such as liraglutide and exenatide exert an intrinsic biological effect on GLP-1 receptors directly stimulating the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and linagliptin prevent the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP through competitive inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme. Both incretin therapies have good safety and tolerability profiles and interact minimally with a number of medications commonly prescribed in T2DM. This paper focuses on the pharmacological basis by which the incretin therapies function and how this knowledge can inform and benefit clinical decisions. Each individual incretin agent has benefits and pitfalls relating to aspects such as glycaemic and nonglycaemic efficacy, safety and tolerability, ease of administration, and cost. Overall, a personalized medicine approach has been found to be favourable, tailoring the incretin agent to benefit and suit patient's needs such as renal impairment (RI) or hepatic impairment (HI).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2013
                17 September 2013
                : 7
                : 989-1001
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Geriatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dario Giugliano, Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Geriatrics, University Hospital at the Second University of Naples, Piazza L Miraglia 2, 80138 Naples, Italy, Tel/Fax +39 081 5665054, Email dario.giugliano@ 123456unina2.it
                Article
                dddt-7-989
                10.2147/DDDT.S37647
                3782406
                24068868
                © 2013 Capuano et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                type 2 diabetes, dpp-4 inhibitors, alogliptin

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