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      A Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Hemabate in Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          To compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and midazolam in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) caused by hemabate in postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean delivery.


          One hundred and five parturients with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I and II, aged 20–40 years, undergoing elective cesarean delivery under epidural anesthesia were randomly allocated into dexmedetomidine group (group D, n=35), midazolam group (group M, n=35) and control group (group C, n=35). Patients received an intrauterine injection of 250 μg hemabate and continuous intravenous infusion of 5 units oxytocin immediately following the delivery of the infant. At the same time, patients in group D received 1μg/kg intravenous dexmedetomidine, group M received 0.02 mg/kg intravenous midazolam and group C received 20 mL intravenous saline. Parameters such as the PONV, other adverse reactions (chest distress, flush, etc.) caused by hemabate, patient satisfaction, the sedation (OAA/S) scores, and the hemodynamic parameters were recorded in both groups.


          The PONV incidence in group D and group M was significantly lower compared with group C (6%, 17%, and 71% for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). The sedation (OAA/S) scores in group D and group M was significantly higher compared with group C (1.62±0.28, 1.75±0.31, and 1.00±0.00 for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). The patient satisfaction in group D and group M was significantly higher compared with group C (94%, 69%, and 46% for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, there were more patients satisfied with group D than group M (94% vs.69%, P<0.05).


          Intravenous dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) and midazolam (0.02 mg/kg) were equally effective in preventing PONV introduced by hemabate and dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam in patient satisfaction.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Validity and reliability of the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale: study with intravenous midazolam.

          The Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) Scale was developed to measure the level of alertness in subjects who are sedated. This scale was tested in 18 subjects in a three-period crossover study to assess its reliability and its criterion, behavioral, and construct validity. After receiving either placebo or a titrated dose of midazolam to produce light or heavy sedation, each subject was administered two sedation scales (OAA/S Scale and a Visual Analogue Scale) and two performances tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Serial Sevens Subtraction). Two raters individually evaluated the subject's level of alertness on each of the two sedation scales. The results obtained on the OAA/S Scale were reliable and valid as measured by high correlations between the two raters and high correlations between the OAA/S Scale and two of the three standard tests used in this study. The OAA/S Scale was sensitive to the level of midazolam administered; all pairwise comparisons were significant (p less than 0.05) for all three treatment levels at both test periods.
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            Dexmedetomidine: current role in anesthesia and intensive care.

            To update and review the application of dexmedetomidine in anesthesia and intensive care. This study is a comprehensive review of clinical uses, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine. The effective use of sedative-hypnotic agents and analgesics is an integral part of comfort and safety of patients. Dexmedetomidine is a potent and highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist with sympatholytic, sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties, which has been described as a useful and safe adjunct in many clinical applications. It provides a unique "conscious sedation", analgesia, without respiratory depression. The current reviewed uses include sedation at Intensive Care Unit-ICU (both adult and pediatric), emergency department, regional and general anesthesia, neurosurgery, sedation for pediatric procedures, awake fiber-optic intubation, cardiac surgery and bariatric surgery. Dexmedetomidine offers a unique ability of providing both sedation and analgesia without respiratory depression. It is a new agent with a wide safety margin, excellent sedative capacity and moderate analgesic properties. Although its wide use is currently in patients of surgical and non-surgical intensive care units, dexmedetomidine seems to have promising future applications in neuroprotection, cardioprotection and renoprotection. More detailed studies are required to define its role as sedative in critical, neurosurgical and pediatric patients, as anesthesia adjunct and sedative during procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
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              Reduction in the incidence of shivering with perioperative dexmedetomidine: A randomized prospective study

              Background and Aims: Shivering is distressing to the patient and discomforting to the attending anesthesiologist, with a varying degree of success. Various drugs and regimens have been employed to abolish the occurrence of shivering. The present study aims to explore the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine in suppressing the postanesthetic shivering in patients undergoing general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 80 patients, in American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II, aged 22–59 years, who underwent general anesthesia for laparoscopic surgical procedures. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups: group N (n = 40) and group D (n = 40). Group D were administered 1 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine intravenously, while group N received similar volume of saline during peri-op period. Cardiorespiratory parameters were observed and recorded during the preop, intraop, and postop periods. Any incidence of postop shivering was observed and recorded as per 4 point scale. Side effects were also observed, recorded, and treated symptomatically. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 for windows and employing ANOVA and chi-square test with post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni's correction. Results: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic profile (P > 0.05). Incidence of shivering in group N was 42.5%, which was statistically highly significant (P = 0.014). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure also showed significant variation clinically and statistically in group D patients during the postop period (P = 0.008 and 0.012). A high incidence of sedation (P = 0.000) and dry mouth (P = 0.000) was observed in group D, whereas the incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in group N (P = 0.011 and 0.034). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine seems to possess antishivering properties and was found to reduce the occurrence of shivering in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                28 May 2020
                : 14
                : 2127-2133
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University , Guiyang,People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Research Centre, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University , Guiyang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bailong Hu Email 375896605@qq.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2020 Hu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 24, Pages: 7
                This work was supported by the Pain Management Branch of Chinese Society of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesiology: CSCVA-PM-2017005, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81904319), the Fund of Guiyang Science and Technology department ([2019] 9-1-24), the Guizhou Provincial Natural Science Foundation (qiankehejichu[2020]1Y298), the Science and Technology Fund of Guizhou Provincial Health Department (qiankehe pingtairencai[2018]5779-52, qiankehepingtairencai[2018] 5779-38), and Traditional Chinese Medicine Project of Guizhou Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (QZYY-2019-013).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                dexmedetomidine, midazolam, ponv, hemabate, cesarean delivery


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