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      MRI as a tool to assess surgical margins and pseudocapsule features directly following partial nephrectomy for small renal masses

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          To evaluate the feasibility of ex vivo 7T MRI to assess surgical margins (SMs) and pseudocapsule (PC) features after partial nephrectomy (PN).

          Materials and methods

          In this prospective, IRB-approved study, seven patients undergoing a PN for nine tumours between November 2014 and July 2015 were included for analysis after obtaining informed consent. MRI of the specimen was acquired using a 7T small bore scanner. The imaging protocol consisted of anatomical T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging. After formalin fixation, specimens were cut for pathology work-up in the same orientation as the MR images were obtained. The entire specimen was processed into H&E slides that were digitally scanned, annotated and correlated with radiological findings for negative SMs, PC presence, PC continuity and extra-PC-extension (EPCE). Sensitivity and specificity of MRI for assessment of these endpoints were calculated.


          The sensitivity and specificity for assessment of the SM were 100% and 75%, respectively. Two false-positive outcomes were reported, both in case of EPCE and a SM ≤0.5 mm. For the presence of a PC, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 33%, respectively. Two false-positive scans with anatomical structures mimicking the presence of a PC occurred. If a PC was present, continuity and EPCE were assessed with a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 100% and 67% and 100%, respectively.


          Ex vivo 7T MRI is a feasible tool for perioperative evaluation of SMs, and if present, PC features after PN. This may facilitate maximal sparing of renal parenchyma without compromising oncological outcomes.

          Key Points

          • Ex vivo MRI may contribute to improvement of negative surgical margins during partial nephrectomy.

          • Due to the assessment of surgical margins within a limited time span from obtaining the partial nephrectomy specimen, surgery for more complex tumours is possible with maximum sparing of healthy renal parenchyma without compromising oncological outcomes.

          • The intra operative assessment of pseudocapsule continuity along the resection margin enables maximal sparing of healthy renal parenchyma without delayed diagnosis of incomplete resection.

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          Most cited references 16

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          EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update.

          The European Association of Urology Guideline Group for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prepared these guidelines to help clinicians assess the current evidence-based management of RCC and to incorporate the present recommendations into daily clinical practice. The recommendations provided in the current updated guidelines are based on a thorough review of available RCC guidelines and review articles combined with a systematic literature search using Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A number of recent prospective randomised studies concerning RCC are now available with a high level of evidence, whereas earlier publications were based on retrospective analyses, including some larger multicentre validation studies, meta-analyses, and well-designed controlled studies. These guidelines contain information for the treatment of an individual patient according to a current standardised general approach. Updated recommendations concerning diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up can improve the clinical handling of patients with RCC. (c) 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Treatment of localised renal cell carcinoma.

            The increasing incidence of localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC) over the last 3 decades and controversy over mortality rates have prompted reassessment of current treatment. To critically review the recent data on the management of localised RCC to arrive at a general consensus. A Medline search was performed from January 1, 2004, to May 3, 2011, using renal cell carcinoma, nephrectomy (Medical Subject Heading [MeSH] major topic), surgical procedures, minimally invasive (MeSH major topic), nephron-sparing surgery, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, surveillance, and watchful waiting. Initial active surveillance (AS) should be a first treatment option for small renal masses (SRMs) <4 cm in unfit patients or those with limited life expectancy. SRMs that show fast growth or reach 4 cm in diameter while on AS should be considered for treatment. Partial nephrectomy (PN) is the established treatment for T1a tumours (<4 cm) and an emerging standard treatment for T1b tumours (4-7 cm) provided that the operation is technically feasible and the tumour can be completely removed. Radical nephrectomy (RN) should be limited to those cases where the tumour is not amenable to nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) has benefits over open RN in terms of morbidity and should be the standard of care for T1 and T2 tumours, provided that it is performed in an advanced laparoscopic centre and NSS is not applicable. Open PN, not LRN, should be performed if minimally invasive expertise is not available. At this time, there is insufficient long-term data available to adequately compare ablative techniques with surgical options. Therefore ablative therapies should be reserved for carefully selected high surgical risk patients with SRMs <4 cm. The choice of treatment for the patient with localised RCC needs to be individualised. Preservation of renal function without compromising the oncologic outcome should be the most important goal in the decision-making process. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy.

              A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes.

                Author and article information

                Eur Radiol
                Eur Radiol
                European Radiology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                24 July 2018
                24 July 2018
                : 29
                : 2
                : 509-516
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 9382, GRID grid.10417.33, Department of Urology, , Radboud University Medical Center, ; P.O. Box 9101, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 9382, GRID grid.10417.33, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, , Radboud University Medical Center, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 9382, GRID grid.10417.33, Department of Pathology, , Radboud University Medical Center, ; Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: Radboud University Medical Center
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                © European Society of Radiology 2019


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