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      CXCR2 is critical for dsRNA-induced lung injury: relevance to viral lung infection


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          Respiratory viral infections are characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes, including activated neutrophils into the lung that can lead to sustained lung injury and potentially contribute to chronic lung disease. Specific mechanisms recruiting neutrophils to the lung during virus-induced lung inflammation and injury have not been fully elucidated. Since CXCL1 and CXCL2/3, acting through CXCR2, are potent neutrophil chemoattractants, we investigated their role in dsRNA-induced lung injury, where dsRNA (Poly IC) is a well-described synthetic agent mimicking acute viral infection.


          We used 6–8 week old female BALB/c mice to intratracheally inject either single-stranded (ssRNA) or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the airways. The lungs were then harvested at designated timepoints to characterize the elicited chemokine response and resultant lung injury following dsRNA exposure as demonstrated qualititatively by histopathologic analysis, and quantitatively by FACS, protein, and mRNA analysis of BAL fluid and tissue samples. We then repeated the experiments by first pretreating mice with an anti-PMN or corresponding control antibody, and then subsequently pretreating a separate cohort of mice with an anti-CXCR2 or corresponding control antibody prior to dsRNA exposure.


          Intratracheal dsRNA led to significant increases in neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in BALB/c mice at 72 h following dsRNA, but not in response to ssRNA (Poly C; control) treatment. Expression of CXCR2 ligands and CXCR2 paralleled neutrophil recruitment to the lung. Neutrophil depletion studies significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in response to dsRNA when mice were pretreated with an anti-PMN monoclonal Ab. Furthermore, inhibition of CXCR2 ligands/CXCR2 interaction by pretreating dsRNA-exposed mice with an anti-CXCR2 neutralizing Ab also significantly attenuated neutrophil sequestration and lung injury.


          These findings demonstrate that CXC chemokine ligand/CXCR2 biological axis is critical during the pathogenesis of dsRNA-induced lung injury relevant to acute viral infections.

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          Relationship of upper and lower airway cytokines to outcome of experimental rhinovirus infection.

          To test the hypothesis that rhinovirus (RV)-induced immune responses influence the outcome of RV infections, we inoculated 22 subjects with allergic rhinitis or asthma with RV16. Nasal secretions and induced sputum were repeatedly sampled over the next 14 d. RV16 infection increased nasal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-8, which was accompanied by neutrophilia in blood and nasal secretions. Nasal G-CSF correlated closely with increased blood neutrophils (r(s) = 0.69, p < 0.005), whereas nasal neutrophils correlated with both G-CSF (r(s) = 0.87, p < 0.001) and IL-8 (r(s) = 0.75, p < 0.001). Although similar relationships were present in sputum, changes in sputum neutrophils and G-CSF with RV16 infection were relatively modest. In addition, virus-induced changes in the sputum interferon-gamma-to-IL-5 messenger RNA ratio were inversely related to both peak cold symptoms (r(s) = -0.60, p < 0.005) and the time to viral clearance (undetectable picornavirus RNA). These results indicate that airway IL-8 and G-CSF are closely associated with virus-induced neutrophilic inflammation during an experimental RV infection in atopic volunteers. In addition, the balance of airway T-helper cell type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-like cytokines induced by RV infection may help determine the clinical outcome of common cold infections, raising the possibility that the individual subject's immune response, rather than atopic status per se, is important in this regard.
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            When two strands are better than one: the mediators and modulators of the cellular responses to double-stranded RNA.

            Double-stranded RNA is a potent inducer of interferon, a modulator of the expression of a number of other genes involved in the response of cells to virus infection, an activator of the interferon-induced antiviral state, and may be involved in differentiation, induction of apoptosis, and control of oncogenic transformation. This review will attempt to summarize what is known about the cellular proteins that act to mediate the response of cells to double-stranded RNA and the viral and cellular macromolecules that may be able to modulate these responses.
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              Infection of a human respiratory epithelial cell line with rhinovirus. Induction of cytokine release and modulation of susceptibility to infection by cytokine exposure.

              Rhinovirus infections cause over one third of all colds and are a contributing factor to exacerbations of asthma. To gain insights into the early biochemical events that occur in infected epithelial cells, we develop, for the first time, a model in which a pure respiratory epithelial cell population can be routinely infected by rhinovirus. Viral infection was confirmed by demonstrating that viral titers of supernatants and lysates from infected cell increased with time and by PCR. Infection by rhinovirus 14 was inhibited by homotypic antiserum and by antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the receptor for this virus. Susceptibility of epithelial cells to infection by rhinovirus 14 (but not rhinovirus 2, an ICAM-1 independent strain) can be increased by preexposure of cells to TNF alpha, whereas IFN gamma reduces susceptibility to infection by both rhinovirus strains. Rhinovirus infection per se does not markedly alter ICAM-1 expression on epithelial cells. Finally, we demonstrate that rhinovirus infection induced increased production of IL-8, IL-6, and GM-CSF from epithelial cells. Production of IL-8 correlated with viral replication during the first 24 h after infection. This model should provide useful insights into the pathogenesis of rhinovirus infections.

                Author and article information

                J Inflamm (Lond)
                Journal of Inflammation (London, England)
                BioMed Central (London )
                28 May 2005
                : 2
                : 4
                [1 ]Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Copyright © 2005 Londhe et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 2 December 2004
                : 28 May 2005

                neutrophils,chemokines,lung injury.,viral infection
                neutrophils, chemokines, lung injury., viral infection


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