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      Factors Associated with Alcohol Misuse among Indigenous Tribal Men in Wayanad: A Qualitative Study

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          Disproportionate level of alcohol misuse is reported among indigenous people all over the world. A few available studies from India also support higher alcohol misuse among tribal men, but the reason for it is largely unexplored. Thus, we explored the factors associated with alcohol misuse among indigenous tribal men in Wayanad, Kerala.


          Using a qualitative phenomenological method and purposive sampling techniques, we recruited seven tribal men with a history of alcohol misuse and 28 tribal promoters from the identified tribal colonies in Wayanad, Kerala, India. Data collection was done with a combination of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to the data for identifying core themes.


          We identified the important trajectories of alcohol consumption among tribal men. They initiated alcohol misuse at a younger age due to parental influence, home environment, and peer pressure. Alcohol misuse associated with their traditional rituals and practices, exploitation of landlords, occupational factors, and saving habits. It caused a substantial burden to their spouses and children.


          Alcohol consumption often initiated in their young age was associated with socio-cultural rituals, practices, and exploitation.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Mental health, substance use and suicidal behaviour among young indigenous people in the Arctic: a systematic review.

          The Arctic has been a subject to various socio-cultural changes; indigenous people living in the region have experienced injustice and oppression in different forms. Furthermore, there are currently various new social, political and environmental challenges. It has been assumed that the continuous socio-cultural transition has an influence on indigenous people's wellbeing. We conducted a systematic literature review with regard to epidemiological mental health research on Arctic indigenous children and adolescents. The aim was to describe the nature and scope of research conducted and to explore for possible regional and ethnic differences in mental health. It was found that current epidemiological knowledge is based mainly on cross-sectional studies from selected regions and limited to substance use and suicidal behaviour. Youth suicide rates are alarmingly high in many parts of the Arctic, particularly in Greenland and Alaska. Differences between indigenous and non-indigenous groups are also most evident and uniform across suicide studies, with rates being systematically higher among indigenous youth. Substance use is common throughout the Arctic, however, regional and ethnic differences in usage vary considerably. Other psychosocial problems remain largely unexplored. In addition, very little is known about the causes of mental health problems in general and the impact of rapid socio-cultural changes in particular. There are several methodological limitations in the studies included here, many related to the validity of research instruments in different cultural contexts. There is a need for longitudinal comparative studies from the entire Arctic with culturally relevant instruments addressing mental health in early childhood as well.
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            Phenomenological Approaches in Psychology and Health Sciences

            A whole family of qualitative methods is informed by phenomenological philosophy. When applying these methods, the material is analyzed using concepts from this philosophy to interrogate the findings and to enable greater theoretical analysis. However, the phenomenological approach represents different approaches, from pure description to those more informed by interpretation. Phenomenological philosophy developed from a discipline focusing on thorough descriptions, and only descriptions, toward a greater emphasis on interpretation being inherent in experience. An analogous development toward a broader acknowledgment of the need for interpretation, the influence of the relationship and the researcher, and the co-construction of the narrative is mirrored in qualitative analytic theory and the description of newer analytic methods as, for example, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Critical Narrative Analysis, methods which are theoretically founded in phenomenology. This methodological development and the inevitable contribution of interpretation are illustrated by a case from my own research about psychological interventions and the process of understanding in general practice.
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              How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability


                Author and article information

                Indian J Psychol Med
                Indian J Psychol Med
                Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                Nov-Dec 2019
                11 November 2019
                : 41
                : 6
                : 516-522
                Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Anvar Sadath Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Kozhikode - 673 008, Kerala, India. E-mail: anvarvakkayil@
                Copyright: © 2019 Indian Psychiatric Society - South Zonal Branch

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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