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      Advances and Challenges of Liposome Assisted Drug Delivery

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          Abstract

          The application of liposomes to assist drug delivery has already had a major impact on many biomedical areas. They have been shown to be beneficial for stabilizing therapeutic compounds, overcoming obstacles to cellular and tissue uptake, and improving biodistribution of compounds to target sites in vivo. This enables effective delivery of encapsulated compounds to target sites while minimizing systemic toxicity. Liposomes present as an attractive delivery system due to their flexible physicochemical and biophysical properties, which allow easy manipulation to address different delivery considerations. Despite considerable research in the last 50 years and the plethora of positive results in preclinical studies, the clinical translation of liposome assisted drug delivery platforms has progressed incrementally. In this review, we will discuss the advances in liposome assisted drug delivery, biological challenges that still remain, and current clinical and experimental use of liposomes for biomedical applications. The translational obstacles of liposomal technology will also be presented.

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          Most cited references 117

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          Nanoparticles in medicine: therapeutic applications and developments.

          Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter generally in the 1-100 nm dimension range. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as ultra small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents.
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            Liposomes as nanomedical devices

            Since their discovery in the 1960s, liposomes have been studied in depth, and they continue to constitute a field of intense research. Liposomes are valued for their biological and technological advantages, and are considered to be the most successful drug-carrier system known to date. Notable progress has been made, and several biomedical applications of liposomes are either in clinical trials, are about to be put on the market, or have already been approved for public use. In this review, we briefly analyze how the efficacy of liposomes depends on the nature of their components and their size, surface charge, and lipidic organization. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the physicochemical properties of liposomes on their interaction with cells, half-life, ability to enter tissues, and final fate in vivo. Finally, we describe some strategies developed to overcome limitations of the “first-generation” liposomes, and liposome-based drugs on the market and in clinical trials.
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              Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

              Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                01 December 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1The School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle Callaghan, NSW, Australia
                2Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights NSW, Australia
                3Department of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USA
                4Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University Houston, TX, USA
                5Center for RNA Interference and Non-Coding RNAs, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USA
                6Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Aaron Tan, University College London, UK

                Reviewed by: Zejing Wang, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, USA; Robert Lust, East Carolina University, USA

                *Correspondence: Susan Hua susan.hua@ 123456newcastle.edu.au

                This article was submitted to Integrative and Regenerative Pharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2015.00286
                4664963
                Copyright © 2015 Sercombe, Veerati, Moheimani, Wu, Sood and Hua.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 129, Pages: 13, Words: 11435
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Review

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