Scorpions have always inspired fear and fascination because of the potency of their venoms. Although this ancient arachnid group is relatively small (ca. 2400 species) and has been continuously studied for the past century, the taxonomy is still in a state of flux and the correct identification of species often remains difficult. With more than 725 species and 9000 specimens, the Zoological Museum in Hamburg (ZMH) holds one of the largest and most significant scorpion collections in the world. This collection also contains many historical types described by Karl Kraepelin in the early 20th century. In order to contribute to a more stable scorpion taxonomy and to assist future scorpion researchers, we present an illustrated and annotated catalogue of the ZMH scorpion collections. The type specimens of 89 species belonging to 10 families are documented, imaged and assessed alongside their primary data. For practical reasons, only the taxa belonging to the parvorder Iurida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 are presented here whilst the Parvorder Buthida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 will be catalogued in a second publication.