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      An annotated catalogue of the scorpion types (Arachnida, Scorpiones) held in the Zoological Museum Hamburg. Part I: Parvorder Iurida Soleglad & Fet, 2003

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      Evolutionary Systematics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Scorpions have always inspired fear and fascination because of the potency of their venoms. Although this ancient arachnid group is relatively small (ca. 2400 species) and has been continuously studied for the past century, the taxonomy is still in a state of flux and the correct identification of species often remains difficult. With more than 725 species and 9000 specimens, the Zoological Museum in Hamburg (ZMH) holds one of the largest and most significant scorpion collections in the world. This collection also contains many historical types described by Karl Kraepelin in the early 20th century. In order to contribute to a more stable scorpion taxonomy and to assist future scorpion researchers, we present an illustrated and annotated catalogue of the ZMH scorpion collections. The type specimens of 89 species belonging to 10 families are documented, imaged and assessed alongside their primary data. For practical reasons, only the taxa belonging to the parvorder Iurida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 are presented here whilst the Parvorder Buthida Soleglad et Fet, 2003 will be catalogued in a second publication.

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          The relevance of time series in molecular ecology and conservation biology.

          The genetic structure of a species is shaped by the interaction of contemporary and historical factors. Analyses of individuals from the same population sampled at different points in time can help to disentangle the effects of current and historical forces and facilitate the understanding of the forces driving the differentiation of populations. The use of such time series allows for the exploration of changes at the population and intraspecific levels over time. Material from museum collections plays a key role in understanding and evaluating observed population structures, especially if large numbers of individuals have been sampled from the same locations at multiple time points. In these cases, changes in population structure can be assessed empirically. The development of new molecular markers relying on short DNA fragments (such as microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphisms) allows for the analysis of long-preserved and partially degraded samples. Recently developed techniques to construct genome libraries with a reduced complexity and next generation sequencing and their associated analysis pipelines have the potential to facilitate marker development and genotyping in non-model species. In this review, we discuss the problems with sampling and available marker systems for historical specimens and demonstrate that temporal comparative studies are crucial for the estimation of important population genetic parameters and to measure empirically the effects of recent habitat alteration. While many of these analyses can be performed with samples taken at a single point in time, the measurements are more robust if multiple points in time are studied. Furthermore, examining the effects of habitat alteration, population declines, and population bottlenecks is only possible if samples before and after the respective events are included.
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            A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae) of South Asia

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              New South African Arachnida

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evolutionary Systematics
                EvolSyst
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0730
                November 11 2019
                November 11 2019
                : 3
                : 2
                : 1-92
                Article
                10.3897/evolsyst.3.37464
                © 2019

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