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      Carotenoids, inflammation, and oxidative stress—implications of cellular signaling pathways and relation to chronic disease prevention

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      Nutrition Research
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Several epidemiologic studies have shown that diets rich in fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cancer. These diseases are linked with systemic, low-grade chronic inflammation. Although controversy persists on the bioactive ingredients, several secondary plant metabolites have been associated with these beneficial health effects. Carotenoids represent the most abundant lipid-soluble phytochemicals, and in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that they have antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, many of these properties have been linked to the effect of carotenoids on intracellular signaling cascades, thereby influencing gene expression and protein translation. By blocking the translocation of nuclear factor κB to the nucleus, carotenoids are able to interact with the nuclear factor κB pathway and thus inhibit the downstream production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-8 or prostaglandin E2. Carotenoids can also block oxidative stress by interacting with the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, enhancing its translocation into the nucleus, and activating phase II enzymes and antioxidants, such as glutathione-S-transferases. In this review, which is organized into in vitro, animal, and human investigations, we summarized current knowledge on carotenoids and metabolites with respect to their ability to modulate inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and discuss potential dose-health relations. Although many pathways involved in the bioactivity of carotenoids have been revealed, future research should be directed toward dose-response relations of carotenoids, their metabolites, and their effect on transcription factors and metabolism.

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          Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?

          Extensive research during the past 2 decades has revealed the mechanism by which continued oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn could mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular, neurological, and pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress can activate a variety of transcription factors including NF-κB, AP-1, p53, HIF-1α, PPAR-γ, β-catenin/Wnt, and Nrf2. Activation of these transcription factors can lead to the expression of over 500 different genes, including those for growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, cell cycle regulatory molecules, and anti-inflammatory molecules. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to transformation of a normal cell to tumor cell, tumor cell survival, proliferation, chemoresistance, radioresistance, invasion, angiogenesis, and stem cell survival is the focus of this review. Overall, observations to date suggest that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and cancer are closely linked. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited.

            As new drugs are developed, it is essential to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another. A misunderstanding appears to exist regarding the appropriate method for allometric dose translations, especially when starting new animal or clinical studies. The need for education regarding appropriate translation is evident from the media response regarding some recent studies where authors have shown that resveratrol, a compound found in grapes and red wine, improves the health and life span of mice. Immediately after the online publication of these papers, the scientific community and popular press voiced concerns regarding the relevance of the dose of resveratrol used by the authors. The animal dose should not be extrapolated to a human equivalent dose (HED) by a simple conversion based on body weight, as was reported. For the more appropriate conversion of drug doses from animal studies to human studies, we suggest using the body surface area (BSA) normalization method. BSA correlates well across several mammalian species with several parameters of biology, including oxygen utilization, caloric expenditure, basal metabolism, blood volume, circulating plasma proteins, and renal function. We advocate the use of BSA as a factor when converting a dose for translation from animals to humans, especially for phase I and phase II clinical trials.
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              Prostaglandins and inflammation.

              Prostaglandins are lipid autacoids derived from arachidonic acid. They both sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. They are generated from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, and their biosynthesis is blocked by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including those selective for inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Despite the clinical efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, prostaglandins may function in both the promotion and resolution of inflammation. This review summarizes insights into the mechanisms of prostaglandin generation and the roles of individual mediators and their receptors in modulating the inflammatory response. Prostaglandin biology has potential clinical relevance for atherosclerosis, the response to vascular injury and aortic aneurysm.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrition Research
                Nutrition Research
                Elsevier BV
                02715317
                November 2014
                November 2014
                : 34
                : 11
                : 907-929
                Article
                10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.010
                25134454
                853e2bc4-61bb-430e-ae99-8c9f6a1849c8
                © 2014

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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