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      Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases

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          Abstract

          Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

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          Most cited references 156

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          A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders.

          There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that stress decreases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in limbic structures that control mood and that antidepressant treatment reverses or blocks the effects of stress. Decreased levels of BDNF, as well as other neurotrophic factors, could contribute to the atrophy of certain limbic structures, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex that has been observed in depressed subjects. Conversely, the neurotrophic actions of antidepressants could reverse neuronal atrophy and cell loss and thereby contribute to the therapeutic actions of these treatments. This review provides a critical examination of the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression that has evolved from this work, including analysis of preclinical cellular (adult neurogenesis) and behavioral models of depression and antidepressant actions, as well as clinical neuroimaging and postmortem studies. Although there are some limitations, the results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that decreased expression of BDNF and possibly other growth factors contributes to depression and that upregulation of BDNF plays a role in the actions of antidepressant treatment.
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            The platelet contribution to cancer progression.

            Traditionally viewed as major cellular components in hemostasis and thrombosis, the contribution of platelets to the progression of cancer is an emerging area of research interest. Complex interactions between tumor cells and circulating platelets play an important role in cancer growth and dissemination, and a growing body of evidence supports a role for physiologic platelet receptors and platelet agonists in cancer metastases and angiogenesis. Platelets provide a procoagulant surface facilitating amplification of cancer-related coagulation, and can be recruited to shroud tumor cells, thereby shielding them from immune responses, and facilitate cancer growth and dissemination. Experimental blockade of key platelet receptors, such as GP1b/IX/V, GPIIbIIIa and GPVI, has been shown to attenuate metastases. Platelets are also recognized as dynamic reservoirs of proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins that can be manipulated pharmacologically. A bidirectional relationship between platelets and tumors is also seen, with evidence of 'tumor conditioning' of platelets. The platelet as a reporter of malignancy and a targeted delivery system for anticancer therapy has also been proposed. The development of platelet inhibitors that influence malignancy progression and clinical testing of currently available antiplatelet drugs represents a promising area of targeted cancer therapy. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
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              Emerging roles for platelets as immune and inflammatory cells.

              Despite their small size and anucleate status, platelets have diverse roles in vascular biology. Not only are platelets the cellular mediator of thrombosis, but platelets are also immune cells that initiate and accelerate many vascular inflammatory conditions. Platelets are linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, malaria infection, transplant rejection, and rheumatoid arthritis. In some contexts, platelet immune functions are protective, whereas in others platelets contribute to adverse inflammatory outcomes. In this review, we will discuss platelet and platelet-derived mediator interactions with the innate and acquired arms of the immune system and platelet-vessel wall interactions that drive inflammatory disease. There have been many recent publications indicating both important protective and adverse roles for platelets in infectious disease. Because of this new accumulating data, and the fact that infectious disease continues to be a leading cause of death globally, we will also focus on new and emerging concepts related to platelet immune and inflammatory functions in the context of infectious disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                12 October 2017
                October 2017
                : 18
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Neuronal Networks, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy; delucaciro88@ 123456gmail.com (C.D.L.); virtuosoassunta@ 123456gmail.com (A.V.)
                [2 ]Department of Neurology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 52621 Ramat Gan, Israel; nicmaggio@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, 6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel
                [4 ]SYSBIO, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: michelepapasun@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +39-081-566-7709; Fax: +39-081-566-6011
                Article
                ijms-18-02128
                10.3390/ijms18102128
                5666810
                29023416
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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