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      Solitary plasmacytoma of temporal bone: A rare case report


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          Solitary plasmacytoma of base of skull is a rare disease. It presents with headache, swelling, and other vague symptoms. Systemic work-up to rule out multiple myeloma is necessary. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. We, here, present a case of solitary plasmacytoma of base of skull in right temporal bone in a 50-year-old female treated with surgery and radiotherapy.

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          Solitary plasmacytoma of bone and asymptomatic multiple myeloma.

          Most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) present with symptoms, have evidence of generalized disease, and require chemotherapy promptly to reduce the malignant clone. Some patients present with a local symptom from a single plasmacytoma but no myeloma elsewhere. Such patients usually become free of symptoms after local radiotherapy. In patients with MM without symptoms, the diagnosis is made on the basis of screening laboratory tests. In patients with either solitary plasmacytoma of bone or asymptomatic MM, systemic treatment should be deferred until there is evidence of disease progression.
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            Plasmacytoma. Treatment results and conversion to myeloma.

            Forty-six cases of solitary plasmacytoma were reviewed for response to radiation and progression to multiple myeloma. Cases were classified as solitary plasmacytomas of bone (SPB) (32 cases) or extramedullary plasmacytomas (EP) (14 cases). There was an overall 93% response rate of the tumor to radiation therapy: 62% had a complete response after radiation therapy, whereas 31% had a partial response. Conversion to multiple myeloma was influenced by the type of plasmacytoma; 53% of the patients with SPB converting to myeloma versus 36% of the patients with EP. Time from diagnosis to conversion for patients with SPB showed no evidence of plateau, with conversion continuing to occur even after 17 years. The median survival time for patients after conversion to myeloma was 14.5 months and was not affected by time to conversion. Serum protein level, presence of monoclonal gammopathy, and size of primary lesion were of some prognostic significance in predicting conversion to myeloma. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not affect the incidence of conversion but did appear to delay conversion to myeloma. Seven patients in whom multiple sequential solitary plasmacytomas developed formed a distinct subset, with a median time to a second plasmacytoma of 63 months. In three of these patients, conversion to myeloma occurred subsequently. This study supports the idea of EP having a lower incidence of conversion to myeloma and a different natural history from SPB, with SPB likely to be multiple myeloma in evolution.
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              Localised plasmacytomas in Taiwan: comparison between extramedullary plasmacytoma and solitary plasmacytoma of bone.

              The clinical features and response to therapy of 32 Chinese patients with localised plasmacytoma are presented, and a comparison between extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) and solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) is made. Twenty-two patients had SPB and ten had EMP, accounting for 9% of all of our plasma cell neoplasms. Both groups had a male predominance with a median age of 54 years for SPB and 63 years for EMP. The common sites of SPB included vertebral bodies (15) and the skull (4). Most EMPs occurred in the oronasopharynx (6) and paranasal sinuses (2). An M-protein was detected in eight patients with SPB and in six with EMP. Seventeen patients with SPB and seven with EMP received radiation therapy, and all achieved initial local control. The pattern of failure in 22 patients with SPB manifested as local recurrence in two, multiple bone metastases without bone marrow plasmacytosis in two, multiple EMP progression in two, and development of multiple myeloma (MM) in one. There were two local recurrences, one further solitary bone involvement and one MM conversion in the EMP group. Local recurrence or dissemination was associated with the appearance of M-protein or an increase in the M-protein level in both groups. There was no significant difference in M-protein status or incidence and patterns of failure between the two groups. Patients with EMP had a more favourable overall survival than those with SPB (P = 0.03). The 5 year disease-free survival rate was 79% for EMP and 58% for SPB (P = 0.53). Patients aged less than 60 years had a better overall survival in the SPB group, but location of tumour, presence of M-protein, radiation dose and chemotherapy did not influence prognosis in either group. Our results indicate that adequate local therapy can result in long-term survival with a low frequency of MM progression for patients with localised plasmacytomas, and both EMP and SPB appear to be similar in terms of frequency and patterns of failure.

                Author and article information

                Asian J Neurosurg
                Asian J Neurosurg
                Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Mar 2017
                : 12
                : 1
                : 95-97
                [1]Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ritesh Kumar, Department of Radiotherapy and Regional Cancer Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: riteshkr9@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright: © 2014 Asian Journal of Neurosurgery

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Case Report

                plasmacytoma, radiotherapy, temporal


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