Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are RNA molecules that do not translate into protein. Both miRNAs and lncRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and to play an essential role in T cell differentiation and function. Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a representative disease of inflammatory arthritis, are characterized by a complex dysfunction in the innate and adaptive immunity. T cells play a central role in cell-mediated immune response and multiple defects in T cells from patients with SLE and RA have been observed. Abnormality in T cell signalling, cytokine and chemokine production, T cell activation and apoptosis, T cell differentiation and DNA methylation that are associated closely with the aberrant expression of a number of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of SLE and RA. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of research on the abnormal expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs in T cells and their roles in the immunopathogenesis of SLE and RA. In addition, by comparing the differences in aberrant expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs in T cells between patients with SLE and RA, controversial areas are highlighted that warrant further investigation.