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      A Prospective Echocardiographic Study of the Effects of Balloon Mitral Commissurotomy on Pre-Existing Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Mitral Stenosis

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          Abstract

          Mitral regurgitation which is more than mild in severity is usually regarded as a relative contraindication to balloon mitral commissurotomy (BMC) because it is commonly believed that it may be worsened by the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BMC on pre-existing mitral regurgitation. Transthoracic and biplane transoesophageal echocardiography (TTE, TEE) combined with colour flow mapping (CFM) were performed prospectively on 50 consecutive patients immediately before and within 24 h after Inoue BMC. Before BMC, mitral regurgitation (MR) was diagnosed by TEE and left ventriculography in 36 and 13 patients respectively. Angiographic MR was mild in all 13 cases. The precise origins of MR jets were carefully sought by scanning in multiple TTE and TEE views. The maximal area of colour flow MR jets detected by TEE was measured by planimetry. After BMC mean mitral valve area increased from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.8 cm<sup>2</sup>, p < 0.0001, mean left atrial pressure and volume decreased from 23.7 ± 5.6 mm Hg to 21.6 ± 7.5 ml, p = 0.039, and from 105 ± 56 to 90 ± 46 ml, p = 0.002, respectively. MR jets as assessed by TEE CFM disappeared in 12 patients, in all of whom MR had been undetected by angiography. MR jets remained within 20% of their original sizes in 16 (44%) patients and more than doubled in only 3 patients. However, the latter had only mild angiographic MR after BMC. BMC created new MR jets, distinct from pre-existing ones, in 27 (75%) patients. Their aetiologies were commissural splitting in 24, leaflet tears in 2 and chordal rupture in 1 case. New MR jets were co-existent with old jets in 17 (47%) cases and in 10 (28%) cases old jets were replaced by new jets. The severity of angiographic MR was unchanged in 21 (58%) of the 36 patients; new jets, all originating from one or both commissures, were found in 13 (65%) patients on TEE. Angiographic MR increased by 1 grade in 11 (33%) patients; new jets were detected in 9 patients, 8 from the commissures and 1 due to chordal rupture; in only 1 of the 11 patients did the increase in MR appear to be due to a worsening of a pre-existing jet. Angiographic MR increased by 2 grades in 3 (8%) patients; new jets appeared in all 3, arising from the commissures in 2 and from a leaflet tear in 1 case. One patient with a leaflet tear sustained an increase of 3 grades in angiographic MR. The final degree of angiographic MR was nil in 13, mild in 15, moderate in 6 and severe in 2 patients. Leaflet tears were responsible for both cases of severe MR. BMC does not appear to affect pre-existing mitral regurgitation adversely in almost all patients. It may abolish trivial jets but in most cases it creates new jets alongside the old ones. Leaflet tears are responsible for severe mitral regurgitation after BMC and this is independent of pre-existing regurgitant jets.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1998
          March 1998
          16 March 1998
          : 89
          : 3
          : 202-209
          Affiliations
          Department of Cardiology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
          Article
          6788 Cardiology 1998;89:202–209
          10.1159/000006788
          9570435
          © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 18, Pages: 8
          Categories
          Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology

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