+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis: Potential Therapeutic Target


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease. Approximately one-third to two-thirds of the patients with SLE progress to lupus nephritis (LN). The pathogenesis of SLE and LN has not yet been fully elucidated, and effective treatment for both conditions is lacking. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle and is a site of protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and calcium storage. Under stress, the function of ER is disrupted, and the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins occurs in ER, resulting in an ER stress (ERS) response. ERS is involved in the dysfunction of B cells, macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and other immune cells, causing immune system disorders, such as SLE. In addition, ERS is also involved in renal resident cell injury and contributes to the progression of LN. The molecular chaperones, autophagy, and proteasome degradation pathways inhibit ERS and restore ER homeostasis to improve the dysfunction of immune cells and renal resident cell injury. This may be a therapeutic strategy for SLE and LN. In this review, we summarize advances in this field.

          Related collections

          Most cited references150

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Systemic lupus erythematosus.

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Human dendritic cell subsets: an update

            Summary Dendritic cells (DC) are a class of bone‐marrow‐derived cells arising from lympho‐myeloid haematopoiesis that form an essential interface between the innate sensing of pathogens and the activation of adaptive immunity. This task requires a wide range of mechanisms and responses, which are divided between three major DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid/conventional DC1 (cDC1) and myeloid/conventional DC2 (cDC2). Each DC subset develops under the control of a specific repertoire of transcription factors involving differential levels of IRF8 and IRF4 in collaboration with PU.1, ID2, E2‐2, ZEB2, KLF4, IKZF1 and BATF3. DC haematopoiesis is conserved between mammalian species and is distinct from monocyte development. Although monocytes can differentiate into DC, especially during inflammation, most quiescent tissues contain significant resident populations of DC lineage cells. An extended range of surface markers facilitates the identification of specific DC subsets although it remains difficult to dissociate cDC2 from monocyte‐derived DC in some settings. Recent studies based on an increasing level of resolution of phenotype and gene expression have identified pre‐DC in human blood and heterogeneity among cDC2. These advances facilitate the integration of mouse and human immunology, support efforts to unravel human DC function in vivo and continue to present new translational opportunities to medicine.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              The endoplasmic reticulum: structure, function and response to cellular signaling

              The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, dynamic structure that serves many roles in the cell including calcium storage, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. The diverse functions of the ER are performed by distinct domains; consisting of tubules, sheets and the nuclear envelope. Several proteins that contribute to the overall architecture and dynamics of the ER have been identified, but many questions remain as to how the ER changes shape in response to cellular cues, cell type, cell cycle state and during development of the organism. Here we discuss what is known about the dynamics of the ER, what questions remain, and how coordinated responses add to the layers of regulation in this dynamic organelle.

                Author and article information

                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                Journal of Immunology Research
                31 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 7625817
                Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Autophagy and Major Chronic Non-communicable Diseases, Key Laboratory of Prevention and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease of Zhanjiang City, Institute of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Srinivasa Reddy Bonam

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Hui-Yuan Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 February 2023
                : 20 July 2023
                : 10 August 2023
                Funded by: Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation of Guangdong Province
                Award ID: 2021A1515011581
                Award ID: 2023A1515030024
                Award ID: 2019A1515010678
                Funded by: Science and Technology Planning Project of Zhanjiang City
                Award ID: 2022A01186
                Award ID: 2018A01040
                Award ID: 2018A01034
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81700627
                Award ID: 81670654
                Award ID: 81974095
                Funded by: Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Autophagy and Major Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases
                Award ID: 2022B1212030003
                Funded by: National Clinical Key Specialty Construction Project
                Funded by: Discipline Construction Project of Guangdong Medical University
                Award ID: 4SG21229G
                Funded by: Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University Clinical Research Program
                Award ID: LCYJ2018C008
                Review Article


                Comment on this article