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      Vascular endothelial cadherin shedding is more severe in sepsis patients with severe acute kidney injury


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          Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is a membrane protein that is the major component of adherens junctions between endothelial cells. It is crucial for regulating vascular integrity, endothelial permeability, and angiogenesis. During inflammatory processes, VE-cadherin is shed into circulation (sVE-cadherin). Plasma sVE-cadherin is elevated in sepsis, malignancy, autoimmune diseases, and coronary atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between specific organ failures, especially severe acute kidney injury (AKI) defined by requirement for renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT), and plasma sVE-cadherin levels in severe sepsis has not been well studied.


          The present study is a prospective study of critically ill adults with sepsis and acute respiratory failure (age ≥ 18 years) enrolled in the Validating Acute Lung Injury markers for Diagnosis (VALID) study. Plasma sVE-cadherin was measured at study enrollment. Primary analysis focused on the association between sVE-cadherin levels and the development of AKI, AKI-RRT, other organ dysfunction as defined by Brussels organ failure scores, pulmonary versus non-pulmonary sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and in-hospital mortality.


          Of 228 severe sepsis patients included, 80 (35%) developed AKI-RRT. Plasma sVE-cadherin levels at enrollment were significantly higher in patients with AKI-RRT compared with patients without AKI-RRT ( p = 0.003). Plasma sVE-cadherin levels by quartile were significantly higher in severe sepsis patients with acute kidney injury stage 3 ( p = 0.044) as defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Patients with greater than 2 organ failures had higher plasma sVE-cadherin levels than patients with 2 or fewer organ failures ( p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis, plasma sVE-cadherin was independently associated with AKI-RRT (odds ratio 6.44 per log increase in plasma sVE-cadherin, 95% CI 1.126–36.847, p = 0.036). Plasma sVE-cadherin levels were significantly higher in patients with non-pulmonary sepsis compared to pulmonary sepsis ( p < 0.001).


          Shedding of sVE-cadherin is associated with severe acute kidney injury and with more severe organ dysfunction in patients with sepsis, suggesting that breakdown of endothelial adherens junctions may contribute to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Further studies of sVE-cadherin as a biomarker of disease severity in clinical sepsis are needed to better elucidate the role of VE-cadherin shedding in sepsis-induced severe organ dysfunction.

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Incidence and outcomes in acute kidney injury: a comprehensive population-based study.

            Epidemiological studies of acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute-on-chronic renal failure (ACRF) are surprisingly sparse and confounded by differences in definition. Reported incidences vary, with few studies being population-based. Given this and our aging population, the incidence of AKI may be much higher than currently thought. We tested the hypothesis that the incidence is higher by including all patients with AKI (in a geographical population base of 523,390) regardless of whether they required renal replacement therapy irrespective of the hospital setting in which they were treated. We also tested the hypothesis that the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Kidney (RIFLE) classification predicts outcomes. We identified all patients with serum creatinine concentrations > or =150 micromol/L (male) or > or =130 micromol/L (female) over a 6-mo period in 2003. Clinical outcomes were obtained from each patient's case records. The incidences of AKI and ACRF were 1811 and 336 per million population, respectively. Median age was 76 yr for AKI and 80.5 yr for ACRF. Sepsis was a precipitating factor in 47% of patients. The RIFLE classification was useful for predicting full recovery of renal function (P < 0.001), renal replacement therapy requirement (P < 0.001), length of hospital stay [excluding those who died during admission (P < 0.001)], and in-hospital mortality (P = 0.035). RIFLE did not predict mortality at 90 d or 6 mo. Thus the incidence of AKI is much higher than previously thought, with implications for service planning and providing information to colleagues about methods to prevent deterioration of renal function. The RIFLE classification is useful for identifying patients at greatest risk of adverse short-term outcomes.
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              A unified theory of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury: inflammation, microcirculatory dysfunction, bioenergetics, and the tubular cell adaptation to injury.

              Given that the leading clinical conditions associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), namely, sepsis, major surgery, heart failure, and hypovolemia, are all associated with shock, it is tempting to attribute all AKI to ischemia on the basis of macrohemodynamic changes. However, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that in many patients, AKI can occur in the absence of overt signs of global renal hypoperfusion. Indeed, sepsis-induced AKI can occur in the setting of normal or even increased renal blood flow. Accordingly, renal injury may not be entirely explained solely on the basis of the classic paradigm of hypoperfusion, and thus other mechanisms must come into play. Herein, we put forward a "unifying theory" to explain the interplay between inflammation and oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, and the adaptive response of the tubular epithelial cell to the septic insult. We propose that this response is mostly adaptive in origin, that it is driven by mitochondria, and that it ultimately results in and explains the clinical phenotype of sepsis-induced AKI.

                Author and article information

                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 January 2019
                18 January 2019
                : 23
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0604 5314, GRID grid.278247.c, Division of Respiratory Therapy, Department of Chest Medicine, , Taipei Veterans General Hospital, ; No. 201, Sec. 2, Shipai Rd., Beitou District, Taipei City, 11217 Taiwan, Republic of China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0425 5914, GRID grid.260770.4, Institute of Physiology, , National Yang-Ming University, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9916, GRID grid.412807.8, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, , Vanderbilt University Medical Center, ; T1218 MCN, 1161 21st, Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2264 7217, GRID grid.152326.1, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, , Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, ; Nashville, TN USA
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2264 7217, GRID grid.152326.1, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, , Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, ; Nashville, TN USA
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100005382, National Yang-Ming University;
                Award ID: Taipei Veterans General Hospital—National Yang-Ming University Excellent Physician Scientists Cultivation Program
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000050, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute;
                Award ID: HL103836
                Award ID: HL135849
                Award ID: HL135849
                Award Recipient :
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                endothelial injury,sepsis,soluble vascular endothelial cadherin,acute kidney injury,renal replacement therapy


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