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      Transport of drugs from blood vessels to tumour tissue

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      Nature Reviews Cancer

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P3">The effectiveness of anticancer drugs in treating a solid tumour is dependent on delivery of the drug to virtually all cancer cells in the tumour. The distribution of drug in tumour tissue depends on the plasma pharmacokinetics, the structure and function of the tumour vasculature and the transport properties of the drug as it moves through microvessel walls and in the extravascular tissue. The aim of this Review is to provide a broad, balanced perspective on the current understanding of drug transport to tumour cells and on the progress in developing methods to enhance drug delivery. First, the fundamental processes of solute transport in blood and tissue by convection and diffusion are reviewed, including the dependence of penetration distance from vessels into tissue on solute binding or uptake in tissue. The effects of the abnormal characteristics of tumour vasculature and extravascular tissue on these transport properties are then discussed. Finally, methods for overcoming limitations in drug transport and thereby achieving improved therapeutic results are surveyed. </p>

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          Most cited references 114

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          Hypoxia in cancer: significance and impact on clinical outcome.

          Hypoxia, a characteristic feature of locally advanced solid tumors, has emerged as a pivotal factor of the tumor (patho-)physiome since it can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Hypoxia represents a "Janus face" in tumor biology because (a) it is associated with restrained proliferation, differentiation, necrosis or apoptosis, and (b) it can also lead to the development of an aggressive phenotype. Independent of standard prognostic factors, such as tumor stage and nodal status, hypoxia has been suggested as an adverse prognostic factor for patient outcome. Studies of tumor hypoxia involving the direct assessment of the oxygenation status have suggested worse disease-free survival for patients with hypoxic cervical cancers or soft tissue sarcomas. In head & neck cancers the studies suggest that hypoxia is prognostic for survival and local control. Technical limitations of the direct O(2) sensing technique have prompted the use of surrogate markers for tumor hypoxia, such as hypoxia-related endogenous proteins (e.g., HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, CA IX) or exogenous bioreductive drugs. In many - albeit not in all - studies endogenous markers showed prognostic significance for patient outcome. The prognostic relevance of exogenous markers, however, appears to be limited. Noninvasive assessment of hypoxia using imaging techniques can be achieved with PET or SPECT detection of radiolabeled tracers or with MRI techniques (e.g., BOLD). Clinical experience with these methods regarding patient prognosis is so far only limited. In the clinical studies performed up until now, the lack of standardized treatment protocols, inconsistencies of the endpoints characterizing the oxygenation status and methodological differences (e.g., different immunohistochemical staining procedures) may compromise the power of the prognostic parameter used.
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            Normalizing tumor microenvironment to treat cancer: bench to bedside to biomarkers.

             Rakesh Jain (2013)
            For almost four decades, my work has focused on one challenge: improving the delivery and efficacy of anticancer therapeutics. Working on the hypothesis that the abnormal tumor microenvironment-characterized by hypoxia and high interstitial fluid pressure--fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance, we developed an array of sophisticated imaging technologies and animal models as well as mathematic models to unravel the complex biology of tumors. Using these tools, we demonstrated that the blood and lymphatic vasculature, fibroblasts, immune cells, and extracellular matrix associated with tumors are abnormal, which together create a hostile tumor microenvironment. We next hypothesized that agents that induce normalization of the microenvironment can improve treatment outcome. Indeed, we demonstrated that judicious use of antiangiogenic agents--originally designed to starve tumors--could transiently normalize tumor vasculature, alleviate hypoxia, increase delivery of drugs and antitumor immune cells, and improve the outcome of various therapies. Our trials of antiangiogenics in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma supported this concept. They revealed that patients whose tumor blood perfusion increased in response to cediranib survived 6 to 9 months longer than those whose blood perfusion did not increase. The normalization hypothesis also opened doors to treating various nonmalignant diseases characterized by abnormal vasculature, such as neurofibromatosis type 2. More recently, we discovered that antifibrosis drugs capable of normalizing the tumor microenvironment can improve the delivery and efficacy of nano- and molecular medicines. Our current efforts are directed at identifying predictive biomarkers and more-effective strategies to normalize the tumor microenvironment for enhancing anticancer therapies.
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              Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid

               D Senger,  S Galli,  A. Dvorak (1983)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                November 10 2017
                November 10 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrc.2017.93
                6371795
                29123246
                © 2017
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