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      Proteoglycan isolated from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth through mechanisms leading to an activation of CD11c+CD8+ DC and type I helper T cell-dominant immune state.

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      Agaricales, chemistry, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, therapeutic use, Bone Marrow Cells, drug effects, pathology, Cell Division, Cell Survival, Dendritic Cells, immunology, Female, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Proteoglycans, isolation & purification, pharmacology, Th1 Cells

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          Dendritic cells (DC) are known to not only induce the activation of T cells, but are also associated with the polarization of T cells. This study investigated whether or not proteoglycan (PG) isolated from Phellinus linteus induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of CD11c+ DC in vitro and in vivo. PG was found to induce the phenotypic and functional maturation of bone marrow-derived DC via Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 in vitro. Administration of PG in vivo strongly inhibited the MCA-102 tumor growth and increase in vivo. The ratio of CD8+ DC to CD8- DC increased, and PG enhanced IL-12 and IFN-gamma production, and expression of surface molecules including major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) classes I, MHC II, CD80, and CD86 in MCA-102-challenged mice. PG also caused a marked increase in the production of Th (helper T cells)-1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and a decrease in the production of Th-2 cytokine (IL-4) by splenic cells and inguinal lymph node cells in MCA-102 tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, PG stimulated the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, a combination of PG and tumor lysate-pulsed DC inhibited completely the growth of MCA-102 cells in tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that the administration of PG inhibited the tumor growth through a mechanism leading to a Th-1 dominant immune state and the activation of CD11cCD8+ DC.

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