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      Fibroblast Growth Factor‐23 and Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Heart Failure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Fibroblast growth factor‐23 (FGF‐23) is a hormone involved in phosphorous regulation and vitamin D metabolism that may be associated with cardiovascular risk, and it is a potential target for intervention. We tested whether elevated FGF‐23 is associated with incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality, even at normal kidney function.

          Methods and Results

          A total of 11 638 Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study participants, median age 57 at baseline (1990–1992), were followed through 2010. Cox regression was used to evaluate the independent association of baseline serum active FGF‐23 with incident outcomes. Models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate. During a median follow‐up of 18.6 years, 1125 participants developed coronary heart disease, 1515 developed heart failure, and 802 died of cardiovascular causes. For all 3 outcomes, there was a threshold, whereby FGF‐23 was not associated with risk at <40 pg/mL but was positively associated with risk at >40 pg/mL. Compared with those with FGF‐23 <40 pg/mL, those in the highest FGF‐23 category (≥58.8 pg/mL) had a higher risk of incident coronary heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CIs: 1.65, 1.40 to 1.94), heart failure (1.75, 1.52 to 2.01), and cardiovascular mortality (1.65, 1.36 to 2.01). Associations were modestly attenuated but remained statistically significant after further adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate. In stratified analyses, similar results were observed in African Americans and among persons with normal kidney function.

          Conclusions

          High levels of serum FGF‐23 were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality in this large, biracial, population‐based cohort. This association was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and kidney function.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

          Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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            Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

            A high level of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about its relationship with adverse outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To evaluate FGF-23 as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. A prospective study of 3879 participants with chronic kidney disease stages 2 through 4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort between June 2003 and September 2008. All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease. At study enrollment, the mean (SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 42.8 (13.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the median FGF-23 level was 145.5 RU/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 96-239 reference unit [RU]/mL). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR, 2.5-4.4 years), 266 participants died (20.3/1000 person-years) and 410 reached end-stage renal disease (33.0/1000 person-years). In adjusted analyses, higher levels of FGF-23 were independently associated with a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], per SD of natural log-transformed FGF-23, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.7). Mortality risk increased by quartile of FGF-23: the HR was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.8-2.2) for the second quartile, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) for the third quartile, and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.1) for the fourth quartile. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 was independently associated with significantly higher risk of end-stage renal disease among participants with an estimated GFR between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 1.3 per SD of FGF-23 natural log-transformed FGF-23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.6) and 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or higher (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), but not less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Elevated FGF-23 is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease in patients with relatively preserved kidney function and for mortality across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease.
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              Fibroblast growth factor 23 and left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease.

              Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a phosphorus-regulating hormone. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF-23 levels are markedly elevated and independently associated with mortality. Left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification are potent risk factors for mortality in CKD, and FGFs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both myocardial hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to test the hypothesis that elevated FGF-23 concentrations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery calcification in patients with CKD. In this study, 162 subjects with CKD underwent echocardiograms and computed tomography scans to assess left ventricular mass index and coronary artery calcification; echocardiograms also were obtained in 58 subjects without CKD. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses in the overall sample, increased log FGF-23 concentrations were independently associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5% increase per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01) and risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.2). These associations strengthened in analyses restricted to the CKD subjects (11% increase in left ventricular mass index per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23; P=0.01; odds ratio of left ventricular hypertrophy per 1-SD increase in log FGF-23, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.2). Although the highest tertile of FGF-23 was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of coronary artery calcification > or =100 versus <100 U compared with the lowest tertile (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.5), the association was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment. FGF-23 is independently associated with left ventricular mass index and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD. Whether increased FGF-23 is a marker or a potential mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy in CKD requires further study.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Am Heart Assoc
                J Am Heart Assoc
                ahaoa
                jah3
                Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd
                2047-9980
                June 2014
                10 June 2014
                : 3
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (P.L.L., A.A., J.S.P.)
                [2 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (J.H.E.)
                [3 ]Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (E.S., S.K.A., J.C.)
                [4 ]Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (E.D.M.)
                [5 ]Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (L.R.L.)
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Pamela L. Lutsey, PhD, MPH, 1300 S 2nd St, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454. E‐mail: lutsey@ 123456umn.edu
                Article
                jah3542
                10.1161/JAHA.114.000936
                4309096
                24922628
                © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Categories
                Original Research
                Epidemiology

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