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      Versican G1 domain enhances adenoviral-mediated transgene expression and can be modulated by inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT and Src family kinase pathways

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          Abstract

          To examine the biochemical influences that may contribute to the success of gene therapy for ocular disorders, the role of versican, a vitreous component, in adenoviral-mediated transgene expression was examined. Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate-containing, hyaluronic acid-binding proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and in ocular vitreous body. Y79 retinoblastoma cells and CD44-negative SK-N-DZ neuroblastoma cells transduced with adenoviral vectors in the presence of versican respond with an activation of transgene expression. Proteolysis of versican generates a hyaluronan-binding G1 domain. The addition of recombinant versican G1 to SK-N-DZ cells results in a similar activation of transgene expression, and treatment with dasatinib, an inhibitor of Src family kinases, also mimics the effects of versican. Enhancement is accompanied by an increase in signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation and is abrogated by treatment with C188-9, a STAT3/5 inhibitor, or with ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibitor. These data implicate versican G1 in enhancing adenoviral vector transgene expression in a hyaluronic acid-CD44 independent manner that is down-regulated by inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway and enhanced by inhibitors of the Src kinase pathway.

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          Most cited references38

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          Mechanisms of Jak/STAT signaling in immunity and disease.

          More than two decades ago, experiments on the antiviral mechanisms of IFNs led to the discovery of JAKs and their downstream effectors, the STAT proteins. This pathway has since become a paradigm for membrane-to-nucleus signaling and explains how a broad range of soluble factors, including cytokines and hormones, mediate their diverse functions. Jak/STAT research has not only impacted basic science, particularly in the context of intercellular communication and cell-extrinsic control of gene expression, it also has become a prototype for transition from bench to bedside, culminating in the development and clinical implementation of pathway-specific therapeutics. This brief review synthesizes our current understanding of Jak/STAT biology while taking stock of the lessons learned and the challenges that lie ahead.
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            Stat3 signaling in acute myeloid leukemia: ligand-dependent and -independent activation and induction of apoptosis by a novel small-molecule Stat3 inhibitor.

            Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy with a relapse rate approaching 50%, despite aggressive chemotherapy. New therapies for AML are targeted at signal transduction pathways known to support blast survival, such as the Stat3 pathway. Aberrant activation of Stat3 has been demonstrated in many different malignancies, including AML, and this finding is frequently associated with more aggressive disease. The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize Stat3 signaling patterns in AML cells lines and primary pediatric samples; and (2) to test the efficacy and potency of a novel Stat3 inhibitor in inducing apoptosis in AML cells. We found that Stat3 was constitutively activated in 6 of 7 AML cell lines and 6 of 18 primary pediatric AML samples. Moreover, constitutively phosphorylated Stat3 was frequent in samples with normal karyotype but uncommon in samples with t(8;21). Most cell lines and primary samples responded to G-CSF stimulation, although the sensitivity and magnitude of the response varied dramatically. Our novel small-molecule Stat3 inhibitor, C188-9, inhibited G-CSF-induced Stat3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary samples, and inhibited AML blast colony formation with potencies in the low micromolar range. Therefore, Stat3 inhibition may be a valuable strategy for targeted therapies for AML.
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              Versican and the control of inflammation.

              Versican is an extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycan that interacts with cells by binding to non-integrin and integrin receptors and to other ECM components that associate with the cell surface. Recent studies have shown also that versican interacts with myeloid and lymphoid cells promoting their adhesion and production of inflammatory cytokines. Versican is produced by stromal cells, as well as leukocytes, and is markedly increased in inflammation. Inflammatory agonists, such as double-stranded RNA mimetics (e.g., poly I:C), stimulate stromal cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, to produce fibrillar ECMs enriched in versican and hyaluronan (HA) that interact with leukocytes promoting their adhesion. Interference with the incorporation of versican into this ECM blocks monocyte adhesion and dampens the inflammatory response. Tumor cells also express elevated levels of versican which interact with myeloid cells to promote an inflammatory response, through stimulating cytokine release, and metastasis. In addition, myeloid cells, such as macrophages in tumors, synthesize versican which affects tumor cell phenotypes, inflammation, and subsequent metastasis. Versican, by binding to hyaluronan, influences T lymphocyte phenotypes and in part controls the ability of these cells to synthesize and secrete cytokines that influence the immune response. Collectively, these studies indicate that versican as an ECM molecule plays a central role in inflammation and as a result it is emerging as a potential target promising wide therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Biol Chem
                J. Biol. Chem
                jbc
                jbc
                JBC
                The Journal of Biological Chemistry
                American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (11200 Rockville Pike, Suite 302, Rockville, MD 20852-3110, U.S.A. )
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                1 September 2017
                6 July 2017
                6 July 2017
                : 292
                : 35
                : 14381-14390
                Affiliations
                From the []Interdepartmental Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine,
                []Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, and
                []Center for Cell and Gene Therapy and
                the Departments of [§ ]Pediatrics,
                [** ]Molecular and Cellular Biology, and
                [‡‡ ]Ophthalmology Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
                Author notes
                [4 ] To whom correspondence should be addressed: Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates St., Ste. 1025, Houston, TX 77030. Tel.: 832-824-4259; Fax: 832-825-4846; E-mail: rhurwitz@ 123456bcm.edu .
                [1]

                Present address: The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030.

                [2]

                Present address: Spark Therapeutics, Inc., Philadelphia PA 19104.

                [3]

                Present address: Dept. of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville FL 32610.

                Edited by Amanda J. Fosang

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7586-9171
                Article
                M116.773549
                10.1074/jbc.M116.773549
                5582833
                28684419
                85b2b081-33f3-4fd9-b512-3956b5b95f62
                © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

                Author's Choice—Final version free via Creative Commons CC-BY license.

                History
                : 20 December 2016
                : 9 June 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: International Retinal Research Foundation , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100001694;
                Funded by: Golfers Against Cancer , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100006784;
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100000002;
                Award ID: F31-GM085793
                Award ID: T32-DK064717
                Award ID: T32-EY07001
                Categories
                Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices

                Biochemistry
                adenovirus,gene therapy,janus kinase (jak),stat transcription factor,versican (vcan)
                Biochemistry
                adenovirus, gene therapy, janus kinase (jak), stat transcription factor, versican (vcan)

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