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      Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions

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      Cellular and Molecular Immunology

      Springer Nature

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          Innate or adaptive immunity? The example of natural killer cells.

          Natural killer (NK) cells were originally defined as effector lymphocytes of innate immunity endowed with constitutive cytolytic functions. More recently, a more nuanced view of NK cells has emerged. NK cells are now recognized to express a repertoire of activating and inhibitory receptors that is calibrated to ensure self-tolerance while allowing efficacy against assaults such as viral infection and tumor development. Moreover, NK cells do not react in an invariant manner but rather adapt to their environment. Finally, recent studies have unveiled that NK cells can also mount a form of antigen-specific immunologic memory. NK cells thus exert sophisticated biological functions that are attributes of both innate and adaptive immunity, blurring the functional borders between these two arms of the immune response.
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            Induced recruitment of NK cells to lymph nodes provides IFN-gamma for T(H)1 priming.

            Naive T cells are stimulated by antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in secondary lymphoid organs, but whether other types of cell participate in T cell priming is unclear. Here we show in mice that natural killer (NK) cells, which are normally excluded from lymph nodes, are rapidly recruited in a CCR7-independent, CXCR3-dependent manner to lymph nodes on stimulation by the injection of mature DCs. Recruitment of NK cells is also induced by some, but not all, adjuvants and correlates with the induction of T helper cell type 1 (T(H)1) responses. NK cell depletion and reconstitution experiments show that NK cells provide an early source of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) that is necessary for T(H)1 polarization. Taken together, our results identify an induced pathway of NK cell migration in antigen-stimulated lymph nodes and a mechanism by which some adjuvants may facilitate T(H)1 responses.
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              Differentiation of type 1 ILCs from a common progenitor to all helper-like innate lymphoid cell lineages.

              Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently recognized group of lymphocytes that have important functions in protecting epithelial barriers against infections and in maintaining organ homeostasis. ILCs have been categorized into three distinct groups, transcriptional circuitry and effector functions of which strikingly resemble the various T helper cell subsets. Here, we identify a common, Id2-expressing progenitor to all interleukin 7 receptor-expressing, "helper-like" ILC lineages, the CHILP. Interestingly, the CHILP differentiated into ILC2 and ILC3 lineages, but not into conventional natural killer (cNK) cells that have been considered an ILC1 subset. Instead, the CHILP gave rise to a peculiar NKp46(+) IL-7Rα(+) ILC lineage that required T-bet for specification and was distinct of cNK cells or other ILC lineages. Such ILC1s coproduced high levels of IFN-γ and TNF and protected against infections with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Our data significantly advance our understanding of ILC differentiation and presents evidence for a new ILC lineage that protects barrier surfaces against intracellular infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cellular and Molecular Immunology
                Cell Mol Immunol
                Springer Nature
                1672-7681
                2042-0226
                September 18 2017
                September 18 2017
                :
                :
                10.1038/cmi.2017.72
                © 2017
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