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      Predictors of the Pressor Response to the Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibitor, Atomoxetine, in Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension

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          Abstract

          We previously reported that the norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, atomoxetine, improved standing blood pressure and lightheadedness in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the predictors of the pressor response to atomoxetine. Patients with nOH who participated in the clinical trials ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique identifiers: NCT00223691 and NCT01316666) were included in this retrospective analysis. All subjects underwent autonomic function testing, plasma norepinephrine, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, and symptoms assessments, whereas seated and standing, before, and 60 minutes after a single dose of atomoxetine 18 mg. A subset of 25 patients underwent iodine-123–labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning to estimate the degree of cardiac sympathetic denervation. A total of 99 subjects with nOH (67±9 years old, 40 women) participated in the study, 35 with multiple system atrophy, 52 with pure autonomic failure, and 12 with Parkinson disease. The average orthostatic decrease in their systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure was −52±26/−22±15 mm Hg. Supine plasma norepinephrine levels predicted the standing systolic blood pressure (adjusted R 2 was 0.12, F [3,80]=4.66, P =0.007) and diastolic blood pressure (adjusted R 2 was 0.18, F [3, 80]=7.04, P =0.001) in response to atomoxetine. The increase in systolic blood pressure after atomoxetine was associated with the decrease in nOH-related symptoms ( R 2 =0.14, F [1,44]=8.16 P =0.007). In conclusion, plasma norepinephrine was modestly associated with the pressor response to atomoxetine in patients with nOH. Additionally, the improvement in nOH-related symptoms was associated with the increase in the pressor response to atomoxetine.

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          Most cited references24

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          Second consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy.

          A consensus conference on multiple system atrophy (MSA) in 1998 established criteria for diagnosis that have been accepted widely. Since then, clinical, laboratory, neuropathologic, and imaging studies have advanced the field, requiring a fresh evaluation of diagnostic criteria. We held a second consensus conference in 2007 and present the results here. Experts in the clinical, neuropathologic, and imaging aspects of MSA were invited to participate in a 2-day consensus conference. Participants were divided into five groups, consisting of specialists in the parkinsonian, cerebellar, autonomic, neuropathologic, and imaging aspects of the disorder. Each group independently wrote diagnostic criteria for its area of expertise in advance of the meeting. These criteria were discussed and reconciled during the meeting using consensus methodology. The new criteria retain the diagnostic categories of MSA with predominant parkinsonism and MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia to designate the predominant motor features and also retain the designations of definite, probable, and possible MSA. Definite MSA requires neuropathologic demonstration of CNS alpha-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions with neurodegenerative changes in striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar structures. Probable MSA requires a sporadic, progressive adult-onset disorder including rigorously defined autonomic failure and poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. Possible MSA requires a sporadic, progressive adult-onset disease including parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia and at least one feature suggesting autonomic dysfunction plus one other feature that may be a clinical or a neuroimaging abnormality. These new criteria have simplified the previous criteria, have incorporated current knowledge, and are expected to enhance future assessments of the disease.
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            The Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ): validation of a novel symptom assessment scale.

            There is no widely accepted validated scale to assess the comprehensive symptom burden and severity of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH). The Orthostatic Hypotension Questionnaire (OHQ) was developed, with two components: the six-item symptoms assessment scale and a four-item daily activity scale to assess the burden of symptoms. Validation analyses were then performed on the two scales and a composite score of the OHQ. The validation analyses of the OHQ were performed using data from patients with NOH participating in a phase IV, double blind, randomized, cross over, placebo-controlled trial of the alpha agonist midodrine. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating OHQ scores with clinician global impression scores of severity as well as with generic health questionnaire scores. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients at baseline and crossover in a subgroup of patients who reported no change in symptoms across visits on a patient global impression scores of change. Responsiveness was examined by determining whether worsening or improvement in the patients' underlying disease status produced an appropriate change in OHQ scores. Baseline data were collected in 137 enrolled patients, follow-up data were collected in 104 patients randomized to treatment arm. Analyses were conducted using all available data. The floor and ceiling effects were minimal. OHQ scores were highly correlated with other patient reported outcome measures, indicating excellent convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was good. OHQ scores could distinguish between patients with severe and patients with less severe symptoms and responded appropriately to midodrine, a pressor agent commonly used to treat NOH. These findings provide empirical evidence that the OHQ can accurately evaluate the severity of symptoms and the functional impact of NOH as well as assess the efficacy of treatment.
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              Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                August 2021
                August 2021
                : 78
                : 2
                : 525-531
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (C.A.S., J.E.C., I.B.).
                [2 ]Dysautonomia Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (J.-A.P., J.M., H.K.).
                Article
                10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14483
                85bc3bf7-8591-469d-8b87-7786d1f0fdc7
                © 2021

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