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      Emerging outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus in adult horses


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          The purpose of this study was to describe clinical, hematological and fecal PCR results from 161 horses involved in outbreaks associated with ECoV. The outbreaks happened at four separate boarding facilities between November 2011 and April 2012 in the States of CA, TX, WI and MA. Following the molecular detection of ECoV in the feces from the initial index cases, the remaining herdmates were closely observed for the development of clinical signs. Fecal samples were collected from sick and healthy horses for the PCR detection of ECoV. All four outbreaks involved primarily adult horses. Fifty-nine horses developed clinical signs with 12–16 sick horses per outbreak. The main clinical signs reported were anorexia, lethargy and fever. Four horses from 3 different outbreaks were euthanized or died due to rapid progression of clinical signs. The cause of death could not be determined with necropsy evaluation in 2 horses, while septicemia secondary to gastrointestinal translocation was suspected in 2 horses. Blood work was available from 10 horses with clinical disease and common hematological abnormalities were leucopenia due to neutropenia and/or lymphopenia. Feces were available for ECoV testing by real-time PCR from 44 and 96 sick and healthy horses, respectively. 38/44 (86%) horses with abnormal clinical signs tested PCR positive for ECoV, while 89/96 (93%) healthy horses tested PCR negative for ECoV. The overall agreement between clinical status and PCR detection of ECoV was 91%. The study results suggest that ECoV is associated with self-limiting clinical and hematological abnormalities in adult horses.

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              Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that causes an acute encephalomyelitis that later resolves into a chronic fulminating demyelinating disease. Cytokine production, chemokine secretion, and immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system are critical to control viral replication during acute infection. Despite potent antiviral T-lymphocyte activity, sterile immunity is not achieved, and MHV chronically persists within oligodendrocytes. Continued infiltration and activation of the immune system, a result of the lingering viral antigen and RNA within oligodendrocytes, lead directly to the development of an immune-mediated demyelination that bears remarkable similarities, both clinically and histologically, to the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. MHV offers a unique model system for studying host defense during acute viral infection and immune-mediated demyelination during chronic infection.

                Author and article information

                Vet Microbiol
                Vet. Microbiol
                Veterinary Microbiology
                Elsevier B.V.
                16 October 2012
                22 February 2013
                16 October 2012
                : 162
                : 1
                : 228-231
                [a ]Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
                [b ]Bracken Equine Clinic, San Antonio, TX, USA
                [c ]Elkhorn Veterinary Clinic, Elkhorn, WI, USA
                [d ]Oak Hill Veterinary Services, Orinda, CA, USA
                [e ]SRH Veterinary Services, Ipswich, MA, USA
                [f ]New England Equine Medical & Surgical Center, Dover, NH, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Tel.: +1 530 754 5523; fax: +1 530 752 9815. npusterla@ 123456ucdavis.edu
                Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 16 July 2012
                : 26 September 2012
                : 5 October 2012

                Veterinary medicine
                equine coronavirus,horse,outbreak
                Veterinary medicine
                equine coronavirus, horse, outbreak


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