Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Machado Joseph disease: clinical and genetic aspects, and current treatment

      ,

      Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs

      Informa Healthcare

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 110

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Toward understanding Machado-Joseph disease.

          Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is the most common inherited spinocerebellar ataxia and one of many polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases. In MJD, a CAG repeat expansion encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the disease protein, ATXN3. Here we review MJD, focusing primarily on the function and dysfunction of ATXN3 and on advances toward potential therapies. ATXN3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) whose highly specialized properties suggest that it participates in ubiquitin-dependent proteostasis. By virtue of its interactions with VCP, various ubiquitin ligases and other ubiquitin-linked proteins, ATXN3 may help regulate the stability or activity of many proteins in diverse cellular pathways implicated in proteotoxic stress response, aging, and cell differentiation. Expansion of the polyQ tract in ATXN3 is thought to promote an altered conformation in the protein, leading to changes in interactions with native partners and to the formation of insoluble aggregates. The development of a wide range of cellular and animal models of MJD has been crucial to the emerging understanding of ATXN3 dysfunction upon polyQ expansion. Despite many advances, however, the principal molecular mechanisms by which mutant ATXN3 elicits neurotoxicity remain elusive. In a chronic degenerative disease like MJD, it is conceivable that mutant ATXN3 triggers multiple, interconnected pathogenic cascades that precipitate cellular dysfunction and eventual cell death. A better understanding of these complex molecular mechanisms will be important as scientists and clinicians begin to focus on developing effective therapies for this incurable, fatal disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Clinical features, neurogenetics and neuropathology of the polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7.

            The spinocerebellar ataxias type 1 (SCA1), 2 (SCA2), 3 (SCA3), 6 (SCA6) and 7 (SCA7) are genetically defined autosomal dominantly inherited progressive cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs). They belong to the group of CAG-repeat or polyglutamine diseases and share pathologically expanded and meiotically unstable glutamine-encoding CAG-repeats at distinct gene loci encoding elongated polyglutamine stretches in the disease proteins. In recent years, progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these currently incurable diseases: Identification of underlying genetic mechanisms made it possible to classify the different ADCAs and to define their clinical and pathological features. Furthermore, advances in molecular biology yielded new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of the gene products of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 (i.e. ataxin-1, ataxin-2, ataxin-3, α-1A subunit of the P/Q type voltage-dependent calcium channel, ataxin-7). In the present review we summarize our current knowledge about the polyglutamine ataxias SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 and compare their clinical and electrophysiological features, genetic and molecular biological background, as well as their brain pathologies. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the structure, interactions and functions of the different disease proteins. On the basis of these comprehensive data, similarities, differences and possible disease mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6: a 2-year follow-up study.

              To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6. We report the results of the 1- and 2-year follow-up visits. As the primary outcome measure we used the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA, 0-40), and as a secondary measure the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms (INAS, 0-16) count. The annual increase of the SARA score was greatest in SCA1 (2.18 ± 0.17, mean ± SE) followed by SCA3 (1.61 ± 0.12) and SCA2 (1.40 ± 0.11). SARA progression in SCA6 was slowest and nonlinear (first year: 0.35 ± 0.34, second year: 1.44 ± 0.34). Analysis of the INAS count yielded similar results. Larger expanded repeats and earlier age at onset were associated with faster SARA progression in SCA1 and SCA2. In SCA1, repeat length of the expanded allele had a similar effect on INAS progression. In SCA3, SARA progression was influenced by the disease duration at inclusion, and INAS progression was faster in females. Our study gives a comprehensive quantitative account of disease progression in SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6 and identifies factors that specifically affect disease progression.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
                Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
                Informa Healthcare
                2167-8707
                April 14 2015
                May 04 2015
                March 18 2015
                May 04 2015
                : 3
                : 5
                : 517-535
                Article
                10.1517/21678707.2015.1025747
                © 2015

                Comments

                Comment on this article