Beth A. Polidoro 1 , * , Kent E. Carpenter 1 , Lorna Collins 2 , 3 , Norman C. Duke 4 , Aaron M. Ellison 5 , Joanna C. Ellison 6 , Elizabeth J. Farnsworth 7 , Edwino S. Fernando 8 , Kandasamy Kathiresan 9 , Nico E. Koedam 10 , Suzanne R. Livingstone 1 , Toyohiko Miyagi 11 , Gregg E. Moore 12 , Vien Ngoc Nam 13 , Jin Eong Ong 14 , Jurgenne H. Primavera 15 , Severino G. Salmo III 4 , 16 , Jonnell C. Sanciangco 1 , Sukristijono Sukardjo 17 , Yamin Wang 18 , Jean Wan Hong Yong 19
8 April 2010
Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.