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      Hallervorden-Spatz disease

      case-report

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          Abstract

          Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction and dementia. Hallervorden and Spatz first described the disease, in 1922 as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by iron deposition in the brain. Here we present four HSD cases with different clinical pictures.

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          Clinical and genetic delineation of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

          Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterised by high brain iron and the presence of axonal spheroids, usually limited to the central nervous system. Mutations in the PANK2 gene account for the majority of NBIA cases and cause an autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A metabolism called pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration (PKAN). More recently, it was found that mutations in the PLA2G6 gene cause both infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and, more rarely, an atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy that overlaps clinically with other forms of NBIA. High brain iron is also present in a portion of these cases. Clinical assessment, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic testing all play a role in guiding the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NBIA.
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            T2* and FSE MRI distinguishes four subtypes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation.

            Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) defines a group of genetic disorders characterized by brain iron deposition and associated with neuronal death. The known causes of NBIA include pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), neuroferritinopathy, infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), and aceruloplasminemia. To define the radiologic features of each NBIA subtype. Brain MRIs from patients with molecularly confirmed PKAN (26 cases), neuroferritinopathy (21 cases), INAD (four cases), and aceruloplasminemia (10 cases) were analyzed blindly to delineate patterns of iron deposition and neurodegeneration. In most cases of PKAN, abnormalities were restricted to globus pallidus and substantia nigra, with 100% having an eye of the tiger sign. In a minority of PKAN cases there was hypointensity of the dentate nuclei (1/5 on T2* sequences, 2/26 on fast spin echo [FSE]). In INAD, globus pallidus and substantia nigra were involved on T2* and FSE scans, with dentate involvement only seen on T2*. By contrast, neuroferritinopathy had consistent involvement of the dentate nuclei, globus pallidus, and putamen, with confluent areas of hyperintensity due to probable cavitation, involving the pallida and putamen in 52%, and a subset having lesions in caudate nuclei and thalami. More uniform involvement of all basal ganglia and the thalami was typical in aceruloplasminemia, but without cavitation. In the majority of cases, different subtypes of neurodegeneration associated with brain iron accumulation can be reliably distinguished with T2* and T2 fast spin echo brain MRI, leading to accurate clinical and subsequent molecular diagnosis.
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              Metabolic consequences of mitochondrial coenzyme A deficiency in patients with PANK2 mutations.

              Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare, inborn error of metabolism characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and by the presence of dystonia, dysarthria, and retinal degeneration. Mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial coenzyme A biosynthesis, represent the most common genetic cause of this disorder. How mutations in this core metabolic enzyme give rise to such a broad clinical spectrum of pathology remains a mystery. To systematically explore its pathogenesis, we performed global metabolic profiling on plasma from a cohort of 14 genetically defined patients and 18 controls. Notably, lactate is elevated in PKAN patients, suggesting dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism. As predicted, but never previously reported, pantothenate levels are higher in patients with premature stop mutations in PANK2. Global metabolic profiling and follow-up studies in patient-derived fibroblasts also reveal defects in bile acid conjugation and lipid metabolism, pathways that require coenzyme A. These findings raise a novel therapeutic hypothesis, namely, that dietary fats and bile acid supplements may hold potential as disease-modifying interventions. Our study illustrates the value of metabolic profiling as a tool for systematically exploring the biochemical basis of inherited metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Adv Biomed Res
                Adv Biomed Res
                ABR
                Advanced Biomedical Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2277-9175
                2277-9175
                2014
                12 September 2014
                : 3
                : 191
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Neurology, Shahid Sadooghi Hospital, Isfahan, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Maseumeh Dashti, Department of Neurology, Shahid Sadooghi Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: dmaseumeh@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                ABR-3-191
                10.4103/2277-9175.140623
                4190451
                25317409
                85f1e1c2-ba9e-42d5-9ca7-99222cdd66cb
                Copyright: © 2014 Dashti.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 19 June 2012
                : 01 May 2013
                Categories
                Case Report

                Molecular medicine
                extra pyramdal sign,hallervorden-spatz disease,dystonia,dementia
                Molecular medicine
                extra pyramdal sign, hallervorden-spatz disease, dystonia, dementia

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