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      Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

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          In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs) of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pK a of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Modeling of drug release from delivery systems based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC).

          The objective of this article is to review the spectrum of mathematical models that have been developed to describe drug release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based pharmaceutical devices. The major advantages of these models are: (i) the elucidation of the underlying mass transport mechanisms; and (ii) the possibility to predict the effect of the device design parameters (e.g., shape, size and composition of HPMC-based matrix tablets) on the resulting drug release rate, thus facilitating the development of new pharmaceutical products. Simple empirical or semi-empirical models such as the classical Higuchi equation and the so-called power law, as well as more complex mechanistic theories that consider diffusion, swelling and dissolution processes simultaneously are presented, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Various examples of practical applications to experimental drug release data are given. The choice of the appropriate mathematical model when developing new pharmaceutical products or elucidating drug release mechanisms strongly depends on the desired or required predictive ability and accuracy of the model. In many cases, the use of a simple empirical or semi-empirical model is fully sufficient. However, when reliable, detailed information are required, more complex, mechanistic theories must be applied. The present article is a comprehensive review of the current state of the art of mathematical modeling drug release from HPMC-based delivery systems and discusses the crucial points of the most important theories.
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            Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient.

             L Illum (1998)
            Chitosan has been investigated as an excipient in the pharmaceutical industry, to be used in direct tablet compression, as a tablet disintegrant, for the production of controlled release solid dosage forms or for the improvement of drug dissolution. Chitosan has, compared to traditional excipients, been shown to have superior characteristics and especially flexibility in its use. Furthermore, chitosan has been used for production of controlled release implant systems for delivery of hormones over extended periods of time. Lately, the transmucosal absorption promoting characteristics of chitosan has been exploited especially for nasal and oral delivery of polar drugs to include peptides and proteins and for vaccine delivery. These properties, together with the very safe toxicity profile, makes chitosan an exciting and promising excipient for the pharmaceutical industry for present and future applications.
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              Drug delivery to the upper small intestine window using gastroretentive technologies.

              The bioavailability of drugs with an absorption window in the upper small intestine is generally limited with conventional pharmaceutical dosage forms. The residence time of such systems and, thus, of their drug release into the stomach and upper intestine is often short. To overcome this restriction and to increase the bioavailability of these drugs, controlled drug delivery systems with a prolonged residence time in the stomach can be used. Approaches to achieving prolonged residence times of the devices in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract include the use of bioadhesive, size-increasing, and floating drug delivery systems.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                27 December 2013
                : 8
                : 67-78
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ming-Thau Sheu, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taipei, Taiwan, Tel +886 2 2736 1661 ext 6112, Fax +886 2 2377 1942, Email mingsheu@ 123456tmu.edu.tw

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2014 Chen et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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