Human and rabbit peritoneal mesothelial cells have been successfully cultured and autoimplanted. An original biopsy technique was used to take samples of peritoneal mesothelial cells and after culture they were characterized from the structural and caryological points of view. Staphylococcal peritonitis was induced in 12 rabbits with indwelling peritoneal catheters and after 4 days of antibiotics 6 of them were autoimplanted with cultured autologous mesothelial cells previously marked in 3 cases with thymidine (H3TdR). Direct morphological observation and autoradiography were used to compare the mesothelium of control rabbits and implanted rabbits sacrificed on days 3 and 6 and showed that the cell implants had taken. Four uremic CAPD patients recovering from severe peritonitis were implanted with about 300 million autologous peritoneal mesothelial cells, previously cultured and frozen. Morphological signs of taking were evident from peritoneal laparoscopy biopsies performed 3 and 6 days after implant. The aim of the study was merely to demonstrate that such implants are possible; however, the techniques may have interesting applications not only in peritoneal dialysis, but also in the vaster fields of medicine and surgery.