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      Traumatic Maculopathy 6 Months after Injury: A Clinical Case Report

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          Purpose: This study aims to report a case of traumatic maculopathy in a 12-year-old male following blunt trauma in his left eye (LE) who presented 6 months after injury. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive case report based on data from clinical records, patient observation and analysis of diagnostic tests. Results: A previously healthy, 12-year-old male presented for a routine visit with complaints of a 2-month history of decreased visual acuity in his LE. Six months before the initial visit, he suffered blunt trauma to the LE during a struggle and had no medical observation. At the visit, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the LE was counting fingers and in the right eye, it was 20/20. Fundus examination of the LE showed a central macular lesion of 1 disc diameter with fibrosis, increased retinal thickness and intraretinal hemorrhage. Optical coherence tomography showed disruption of the inner/outer segment (IS/OS) photoreceptor junction, increased reflectivity, cell infiltration of the retinal wall and retinal pigment epithelium detachment. Retinal thickness was 289 μm at the site of the lesion. A fluorescein angiogram revealed early impregnation and late diffusion. High-dose steroid pulse therapy (intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg for 3 days and oral prednisolone 30 mg, tapering for 10 days) was done. LE BCVA increased to 20/200, and retinal thickness decreased by 71 μm 1 week after treatment. Off-label intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA; 0.05 ml/2 mg) was administered 2 weeks after oral treatment in an attempt to achieve additional improvement. Three weeks after IVTA, LE BCVA improved to 20/150 and retinal thickness decreased by 10 μm. Three months after the initial visit, LE BCVA was 20/125 and retinal thickness 208 μm. Conclusion: We present a case of commotio retinae caused by an ocular blunt trauma 6 months before, with loss of BCVA. BCVA improved after oral steroids and IVTA. Nevertheless, fibrosis and disruption of the IS/OS junction in the macula limited the gain of BCVA.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Combat ocular trauma visual outcomes during operations iraqi and enduring freedom.

          To report the visual and anatomic outcomes as well as to predict the visual prognosis of combat ocular trauma (COT) during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional, consecutive case series. Five hundred twenty-three consecutive globe or adnexal combat injuries, or both, sustained by 387 United States soldiers treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2006. Two hundred one ocular trauma variables were collected on each injured soldier. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was categorized using the ocular trauma score (OTS) grading system and was analyzed by comparing initial and 6-month postinjury BCVA. Best-corrected visual acuity, OTS, and globe, oculoplastic, neuro-ophthalmic, and associated nonocular injuries. The median age was 25+/-7 years (range, 18-57 years), with the median baseline OTS of 70+/-25 (range, 12-100). The types of COT included closed-globe (n = 234; zone 1+2, n = 103; zone 3, n = 131), open-globe (n = 198; intraocular foreign body, n = 86; perforating, n = 61; penetrating, n = 32; and rupture, n = 19), oculoplastic (n = 324), and neuro-ophthalmic (n = 135) injuries. Globe trauma was present in 432 eyes, with 253 eyes used for visual acuity analysis. Comparing initial versus 6-month BCVA, 42% of eyes achieved a BCVA of 20/40 or better, whereas 32% of eyes had a BCVA of no light perception. Closed-globe injuries accounted for 65% of BCVA of 20/40 or better, whereas 75% of open-globe injuries had a BCVA of 20/200 or worse. The ocular injuries with the worst visual outcomes included choroidal hemorrhage, globe perforation or rupture, retinal detachment, submacular hemorrhage, and traumatic optic neuropathy. Additionally, COT that combined globe injury with oculoplastic or neuro-ophthalmologic injury resulted in the highest risk of final BCVA worse than 20/200 (odds ratio, 11.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-34.7; P<0.0005). Nonocular injuries occurred in 85% of cases and included traumatic brain injury (66%) and facial injury (58%). Extremity injuries were 44% (170 of 387 soldiers). Amputation is a subset of extremity injury with 12% (46 of 387) having sustained a severe extremity injury causing amputation. Combat ocular trauma has high rates of nonocular injuries with better visual outcomes in closed-globe compared with open-globe trauma. The OTS is a valid classification scheme for COT and correlates the severity of injury with the final visual acuity and prognosis. Globe combined with oculoplastic or neuroophthalmologic injuries have the worst visual prognosis. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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            Visual outcomes after blunt ocular trauma.

            To describe the prognosis and retinal location in patients presenting with acute traumatic maculopathy and extramacular retinal injuries.
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              Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with commotio retinae.

              To describe the morphologic characteristics of commotio retinae using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and to evaluate its utility in prognosis and follow-up.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                January – April 2014
                01 March 2014
                : 5
                : 1
                : 78-82
                Ophthalmology Department, Leiria Hospital Center, Leiria, Portugal
                Author notes
                *Sílvia Mendes, Ophthalmology Department, Leiria Hospital Center, Rua das Olhalvas, Pousos, PT-2410-197 Leiria (Portugal), E-Mail Silviamendes.r@gmail.com
                360692 PMC3975199 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2014;5:78-82
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 5
                Published: March 2014


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