13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Early prediction of cognitive deficits in very preterm infants using functional connectome data in an artificial neural network framework

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Investigation of the brain's functional connectome can improve our understanding of how an individual brain's organizational changes influence cognitive function and could result in improved individual risk stratification. Brain connectome studies in adults and older children have shown that abnormal network properties may be useful as discriminative features and have exploited machine learning models for early diagnosis in a variety of neurological conditions. However, analogous studies in neonates are rare and with limited significant findings. In this paper, we propose an artificial neural network (ANN) framework for early prediction of cognitive deficits in very preterm infants based on functional connectome data from resting state fMRI. Specifically, we conducted feature selection via stacked sparse autoencoder and outcome prediction via support vector machine (SVM). The proposed ANN model was unsupervised learned using brain connectome data from 884 subjects in autism brain imaging data exchange database and SVM was cross-validated on 28 very preterm infants (born at 23–31 weeks of gestation and without brain injury; scanned at term-equivalent postmenstrual age). Using 90 regions of interests, we found that the ANN model applied to functional connectome data from very premature infants can predict cognitive outcome at 2 years of corrected age with an accuracy of 70.6% and area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. We also noted that several frontal lobe and somatosensory regions, significantly contributed to prediction of cognitive deficits 2 years later. Our work can be considered as a proof of concept for utilizing ANN models on functional connectome data to capture the individual variability inherent in the developing brains of preterm infants. The full potential of ANN will be realized and more robust conclusions drawn when applied to much larger neuroimaging datasets, as we plan to do.

          Highlights

          • Stacked sparse autoencoder for high-level connectome feature learning

          • Artificial neural network on functional connectome data for outcome prediction

          • Prediction of cognitive deficits in very preterm infants

          • Exploration of functional brain connections that most contribute to prediction

          Related collections

          Most cited references 44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Intrinsic functional connectivity as a tool for human connectomics: theory, properties, and optimization.

          Resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) is widely used to investigate brain networks that exhibit correlated fluctuations. While fcMRI does not provide direct measurement of anatomic connectivity, accumulating evidence suggests it is sufficiently constrained by anatomy to allow the architecture of distinct brain systems to be characterized. fcMRI is particularly useful for characterizing large-scale systems that span distributed areas (e.g., polysynaptic cortical pathways, cerebro-cerebellar circuits, cortical-thalamic circuits) and has complementary strengths when contrasted with the other major tool available for human connectomics-high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). We review what is known about fcMRI and then explore fcMRI data reliability, effects of preprocessing, analysis procedures, and effects of different acquisition parameters across six studies (n = 98) to provide recommendations for optimization. Run length (2-12 min), run structure (1 12-min run or 2 6-min runs), temporal resolution (2.5 or 5.0 s), spatial resolution (2 or 3 mm), and the task (fixation, eyes closed rest, eyes open rest, continuous word-classification) were varied. Results revealed moderate to high test-retest reliability. Run structure, temporal resolution, and spatial resolution minimally influenced fcMRI results while fixation and eyes open rest yielded stronger correlations as contrasted to other task conditions. Commonly used preprocessing steps involving regression of nuisance signals minimized nonspecific (noise) correlations including those associated with respiration. The most surprising finding was that estimates of correlation strengths stabilized with acquisition times as brief as 5 min. The brevity and robustness of fcMRI positions it as a powerful tool for large-scale explorations of genetic influences on brain architecture. We conclude by discussing the strengths and limitations of fcMRI and how it can be combined with HARDI techniques to support the emerging field of human connectomics.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Partial correlation for functional brain interactivity investigation in functional MRI.

            Examination of functional interactions through effective connectivity requires the determination of three distinct levels of information: (1) the regions involved in the process and forming the spatial support of the network, (2) the presence or absence of interactions between each pair of regions, and (3) the directionality of the existing interactions. While many methods exist to select regions (Step 1), very little is available to complete Step 2. The two main methods developed so far, structural equation modeling (SEM) and dynamical causal modeling (DCM), usually require precise prior information to be used, while such information is sometimes lacking. Assuming that Step 1 was successfully completed, we here propose a data-driven method to deal with Step 2 and extract functional interactions from fMRI datasets through partial correlations. Partial correlation is more closely related to effective connectivity than marginal correlation and provides a convenient graphical representation for functional interactions. As an instance of brain interactivity investigation, we consider how simple hand movements are processed by the bihemispheric cortical motor network. In the proposed framework, Bayesian analysis makes it possible to estimate and test the partial statistical dependencies between regions without any prior model on the underlying functional interactions. We demonstrate the interest of this approach on real data.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Infant Brain Atlases from Neonates to 1- and 2-Year-Olds

              Background Studies for infants are usually hindered by the insufficient image contrast, especially for neonates. Prior knowledge, in the form of atlas, can provide additional guidance for the data processing such as spatial normalization, label propagation, and tissue segmentation. Although it is highly desired, there is currently no such infant atlas which caters for all these applications. The reason may be largely due to the dramatic early brain development, image processing difficulties, and the need of a large sample size. Methodology To this end, after several years of subject recruitment and data acquisition, we have collected a unique longitudinal dataset, involving 95 normal infants (56 males and 39 females) with MRI scanned at 3 ages, i.e., neonate, 1-year-old, and 2-year-old. State-of-the-art MR image segmentation and registration techniques were employed, to construct which include the templates (grayscale average images), tissue probability maps (TPMs), and brain parcellation maps (i.e., meaningful anatomical regions of interest) for each age group. In addition, the longitudinal correspondences between age-specific atlases were also obtained. Experiments of typical infant applications validated that the proposed atlas outperformed other atlases and is hence very useful for infant-related studies. Conclusions We expect that the proposed infant 0–1–2 brain atlases would be significantly conducive to structural and functional studies of the infant brains. These atlases are publicly available in our website, http://bric.unc.edu/ideagroup/free-softwares/.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Neuroimage Clin
                Neuroimage Clin
                NeuroImage : Clinical
                Elsevier
                2213-1582
                31 January 2018
                2018
                31 January 2018
                : 18
                : 290-297
                Affiliations
                [a ]Perinatal Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States
                [b ]Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States
                [c ]Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States
                [d ]Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. lili.he@ 123456cchmc.org
                Article
                S2213-1582(18)30032-9
                10.1016/j.nicl.2018.01.032
                5987842
                © 2018 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Regular Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article