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Evaluation of analgesic activity of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Arn bark: A tribal claim

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      Abstract

      Background:

      Plants occupy an important place in folk medicine all over the world for centuries and indigenous communities have developed their own specific knowledge on plant resources, uses, management, and conservation. Research interest and activities in the area of ethno medicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. Currently, scientists are evincing keen interest in the scientific evaluation of ethno medical claims. Bark powder of Arjuna ( Terminalia arjuna [Roxb.] Wight and Arn) is used by tribals for the management of some painful conditions.

      Aim:

      To evaluate analgesic activity of T. arjuna bark in rodents.

      Materials and Methods:

      For evaluation of analgesic activity, different experimental models, that is, the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice, formaldehyde-induced paw licking response and tail flick test in rats were designed. Experiments were carried out at two-dose levels, that is, therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and TED × 2. Animals were divided into three groups (six animals in each group), first group serving as a control group, second and third group labeled as test drug group.

      Results:

      Test drug at both the doses significantly decreased the writhing syndrome in comparison to control the group. In comparison to control the group, incidences of formalin-induced paw licking were reduced in test drug groups in both early and late phases of pain. In tail flick response, threshold was significantly increased in both test drug groups at every time intervals.

      Conclusion:

      Study showed that stem bark of T. arjuna possesses analgesic activity in all experimental models.

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      Most cited references 27

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      Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.

      A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs.
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        Antiherpes simplex virus type 2 activity of casuarinin from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn.

        Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.
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          Salutary effect of Terminalia Arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure.

          Twelve patients with refractory chronic congestive heart failure (Class IV NYHA), related to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (10 patients); previous myocardial infarction (one patient) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (one patient), received Terminalia Arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant, as bark extract (500 mg 8-hourly) or matching placebo for 2 weeks each, separated by 2 weeks washout period, in a double blind cross over design as an adjuvent to maximally tolerable conventional therapy (Phase I). The clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation was carried out at baseline and at the end of Terminalia Arjuna and placebo therapy and results were compared. Terminalia Arjuna, compared to placebo, was associated with improvement in symptoms and signs of heart failure, improvement in NYHA Class (Class III vs. Class IV), decrease in echo-left ventricular enddiastolic (125.28 +/- 27.91 vs. 134.56 +/- 29.71 ml/m2; P < 0.005) and endsystolic volume (81.06 +/- 24.60 vs. 94.10 +/- 26.42 ml/m2; P < 0.005) indices, increase in left ventricular stroke volume index (44.21 +/- 11.92 vs. 40.45 +/- 11.56 ml/m2; P < 0.05) and increase in left ventricular ejection fractions (35.33 +/- 7.85 vs. 30.24 +/- 7.13%; P < 0.005). On long term evaluation in an open design (Phase II), wherein Phase I participants continued Terminalia Arjuna in fixed dosage (500 mg 8-hourly) in addition to flexible diuretic, vasodilator and digitalis dosage for 20-28 months (mean 24 months) on outpatient basis, patients showed continued improvement in symptoms, signs, effort tolerance and NYHA Class, with improvement in quality of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Ayurveda, Shri Ram Singh Hospital and Heart Institute, Krishnanagar, Delhi, India
            [1 ]Department of Dravyaguna, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
            [2 ]Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India
            [3 ]Drug Discovery Group, Research and Development, The Himalaya Drug Company, Bangaluru, Karnataka, India
            Author notes
            Address for correspondence: Prof. K. Nishteswar, Head, Dept. of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat, India. E-mail: nishteswar@ 123456yahoo.co.in
            Journal
            Ayu
            Ayu
            AYU
            Ayu
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            0974-8520
            0976-9382
            Oct-Dec 2014
            : 35
            : 4
            : 458-461
            4492035
            AYU-35-458
            10.4103/0974-8520.159041
            Copyright: © AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda)

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Pharmacological Study

            Complementary & Alternative medicine

            reverse pharmacology, pain, arjuna bark

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