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      High Endothelial Venule-Like Vessels in the Interstitial Lesions of Human Glomerulonephritis


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          To clarify the characteristics of high endothelial venule (HEV) -like vessels in the interstitium of human glomerulonephritis, we investigated the expression of HEVs related molecules such as P-selectin and L-selectin ligands; MECA-79 epitope and variant sulfated forms of sialyl Lewis X (variant sLe<sup>X</sup>, clones 2H5, 2F3, GS-13 and GS-36) in kidney specimens by means of immunohistochemical studies, and P-selectin and hevin mRNA signals by using in situ hybridization analyses. In lymphoid organs, HEVs strongly expressed P-selectin, MECA-79, variant sLe<sup>X</sup> and hevin mRNA signals. In normal kidneys (n = 4), only P-selectin was faintly positive in the vessels of interstitium, but other molecules could not be detected. Interstitial P-selectin expression was upregulated in patients with tubulointerstitial diseases (n = 4) and proliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 51) such as IgA-related nephropathy (n = 39), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 4) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (n = 2), but not in nonproliferative glomerular diseases (n = 39) such as minimal change nephrotic syndrome (n = 18) (1.00 ± 0.41, 0.64 ± 0.11, 0.21 ± 0.05, respectively). Interstitial P-selectin expression also correlated with interstitial local cellular infiltration (r = 0.60, p < 0.0001). In addition, P-selectin mRNA signals were detected on the peritubular capillaries and HEV-like vascular endothelial cells. MECA-79 and variant sLe<sup>X</sup> (2H5 and 2F3) were weakly expressed on the HEV-like vessels located at the corticomedullary regions in three cases (7%) and in nine cases (27%) with interstitial cellular infiltration, respectively. However, we could not detect GS-13, GS-36 or hevin mRNA signals in the diseased kidney specimens. In conclusion, HEV-like vessels in renal interstitium expressed molecules somewhat different from HEVs in lymphoid organs and were associated with interstitial leukocyte accumulation in human proliferative glomerulonephritis possibly through the de novo expression of P-selectin and partly L-selectin ligands (MECA-79 epitope and variant sLe<sup>X</sup>) in the interstitial lesions.

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          Most cited references8

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          The α(1,3)Fucosyltransferase Fuc-TVII Controls Leukocyte Trafficking through an Essential Role in L-, E-, and P-selectin Ligand Biosynthesis

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            Identification of a major carbohydrate capping group of the L-selectin ligand on high endothelial venules in human lymph nodes as 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X.

            We investigated the molecular species of sulfated sialyl Lewis X determinants, the putative L-selectin ligand, expressed on high endothelial venules (HEV) in human lymph nodes. Comparison of the reactivity pattern of HEV with the reactivity of the pure 6-sulfo, 6'-sulfo, or 6,6'-bissulfo sialyl Lewis X determinant with hitherto known anti-sialyl Lewis X antibodies strongly suggested 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X to be the best candidate for the major sulfated sialyl Lewis X determinant on HEV, followed by 6,6'-bissulfo sialyl Lewis X, whereas 6'-sulfo sialyl Lewis X was unlikely. We newly generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) G152 and G72 directed against 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X, which intensely labeled HEV in immunohistochemical examination and inhibited binding of recombinant L-selectin-IgG to HEV, suggesting that the determinant serves as a ligand for L-selectin. To test the concomitant expression of 6, 6'-bissulfo sialyl Lewis X, specific mAbs (G2706, G27011, G27037, and G27039) were generated, but all antibodies failed to react to HEV. Next, we established mAbs (AG97 and AG273) directed against 6-sulfo Lewis X, the asialo form of 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X. The antibodies were not reactive to untreated HEV, but strongly reacted to sialidase-treated HEV. This indicated the predominance of the sialylated form of 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X and minimal expression of its asialo form, corroborating that it was synthesized by fucosyltransferase VII, the isoenzyme that preferentially produces the sialylated form of the determinant.
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              Sulphation requirement for GlyCAM-1, an endothelial ligand for L-selectin.

              L-selectin participates in the initial attachment of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium. On lymphocytes, it mediates binding to high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. As a selectin it functions as a calcium-dependent lectin recognizing carbohydrate-bearing ligands on endothelial cells. Two lymph node ligands for L-selectin have been identified as sulphated glycoproteins of M(r) approximately 50K and approximately 90K, called Sgp50 and Sgp90 (ref. 10). The recently cloned Sgp50 (ref. 12), now designated GlyCAM-1, is a high endothelial venule-associated, mucin-like glycoprotein containing predominantly O-linked carbohydrate chains. Sialylation of GlyCAM-1 is necessary for its ligand activity and a role for fucosylation is suspected. We have used chlorate as a metabolic inhibitor of sulphation, and report here that GlyCAM-1 has an additional requirement for sulphate.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2002
                28 March 2002
                : 22
                : 1
                : 48-57
                aDepartment of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, and bDivision of Blood Purification, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
                46674 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:48–57
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 46, Pages: 10
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46674
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                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Clinical Study

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Interstitial lesion,Sialyl Lewis-X,P-selectin,Glomerulonephritis,Hevin,L-selectin ligand,High endothelial venule (HEVs)


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