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      Osteoarthritis: toward a comprehensive understanding of pathological mechanism

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          Abstract

          Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease and a major cause of pain and disability in adult individuals. The etiology of OA includes joint injury, obesity, aging, and heredity. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of OA initiation and progression remain poorly understood and, currently, there are no interventions available to restore degraded cartilage or decelerate disease progression. The diathrodial joint is a complicated organ and its function is to bear weight, perform physical activity and exhibit a joint-specific range of motion during movement. During OA development, the entire joint organ is affected, including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, synovial tissue and meniscus. A full understanding of the pathological mechanism of OA development relies on the discovery of the interplaying mechanisms among different OA symptoms, including articular cartilage degradation, osteophyte formation, subchondral sclerosis and synovial hyperplasia, and the signaling pathway(s) controlling these pathological processes.

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          Osteoarthritis.

          Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage, limited intraarticular inflammation with synovitis, and changes in peri-articular and subchondral bone. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of OA, including mechanical influences, the effects of aging on cartilage matrix composition and structure, and genetic factors. Since the initial stages of OA involve increased cell proliferation and synthesis of matrix proteins, proteinases, growth factors, cytokines, and other inflammatory mediators by chondrocytes, research has focused on the chondrocyte as the cellular mediator of OA pathogenesis. The other cells and tissues of the joint, including the synovium and subchondral bone, also contribute to pathogenesis. The adult articular chondrocyte, which normally maintains the cartilage with a low turnover of matrix constituents, has limited capacity to regenerate the original cartilage matrix architecture. It may attempt to recapitulate phenotypes of early stages of cartilage development, but the precise zonal variations of the original cartilage cannot be replicated. Current pharmacological interventions that address chronic pain are insufficient, and no proven structure-modifying therapy is available. Cartilage tissue engineering with or without gene therapy is the subject of intense investigation. There are multiple animal models of OA, but there is no single model that faithfully replicates the human disease. This review will focus on questions currently under study that may lead to better understanding of mechanisms of OA pathogenesis and elucidation of effective strategies for therapy, with emphasis on mechanisms that affect the function of chondrocytes and interactions with surrounding tissues. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

            To examine the association of low-grade systemic inflammation with diabetes, as well as its heterogeneity across subgroups, we designed a case-cohort study representing the approximately 9-year experience of 10,275 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants. Analytes were measured on stored plasma of 581 incident cases of diabetes and 572 noncases. Statistically significant hazard ratios of developing diabetes for those in the fourth (versus first) quartile of inflammation markers, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, parental history of diabetes, and hypertension, ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 for sialic acid, orosomucoid, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. After additional adjustment for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting glucose and insulin, only the interleukin-6 association remained statistically significant (HR = 1.6, 1.01-2.7). Exclusion of GAD antibody-positive individuals changed associations minimally. An overall inflammation score based on these four markers plus white cell count and fibrinogen predicted diabetes in whites but not African Americans (interaction P = 0.005) and in nonsmokers but not smokers (interaction P = 0.13). The fully adjusted hazard ratio comparing white nonsmokers with score extremes was 3.7 (P for linear trend = 0.008). In conclusion, a low-grade inflammation predicts incident type 2 diabetes. The association is absent in smokers and African-Americans.
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              The role of cytokines in osteoarthritis pathophysiology.

              Morphological changes observed in OA include cartilage erosion as well as a variable degree of synovial inflammation. Current research attributes these changes to a complex network of biochemical factors, including proteolytic enzymes, that lead to a breakdown of the cartilage macromolecules. Cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-alpha produced by activated synoviocytes, mononuclear cells or by articular cartilage itself significantly up-regulate metalloproteinases (MMP) gene expression. Cytokines also blunt chondrocyte compensatory synthesis pathways required to restore the integrity of the degraded extrecellular matrix (ECM). Moreover, in OA synovium, a relative deficit in the production of natural antagonists of the IL-1 receptor (IL-1Ra) has been demonstrated, and could possibly be related to an excess production of nitric oxide in OA tissues. This, coupled with an upregulation in the receptor level, has been shown to be an additional enhancer of the catabolic effect of IL-1 in this disease.IL-1 and TNF-alpha significantly up-regulate MMP-3 steady-state mRNA derived from human synovium and chondrocytes. The neutralization of IL-1 and/or TNF-alpha up-regulation of MMP gene expression appears to be a logical development in the potential medical therapy of OA. Indeed, recombinant IL-1receptor antagonists (ILRa) and soluble IL-1 receptor proteins have been tested in both animal models of OA for modification of OA progression. Soluble IL-1Ra suppressed MMP-3 transcription in the rabbit synovial cell line HIG-82. Experimental evidence showing that neutralizing TNF-alpha suppressed cartilage degradation in arthritis also support such strategy. The important role of TNF-alpha in OA may emerge from the fact that human articular chondrocytes from OA cartilage expressed a significantly higher number of the p55 TNF-alpha receptor which could make OA cartilage particularly susceptible to TNF-alpha degradative stimuli. In addition, OA cartilage produces more TNF-alpha and TNF anglealpha convertase enzyme (TACE) mRNA than normal cartilage. By analogy, an inhibitor to the p55 TNF-alpha receptor may also provide a mechanism for abolishing TNF-alpha-induced degradation of cartilage ECM by MMPs. Since TACE is the regulator of TNF-alpha activity, limiting the activity of TACE might also prove efficacious in OA. IL-1 and TNF-alpha inhibition of chondrocyte compensatory biosynthesis pathways which further compromise cartilage repair must also be dealt with, perhaps by employing stimulatory agents such as transforming growth factor-beta or insulin-like growth factor-I. Certain cytokines have antiinflammatory properties. Three such cytokines - IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 - have been identified as able to modulate various inflammatory processes. Their antiinflammatory potential, however, appears to depend greatly on the target cell. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been tested in vitro in OA tissue and has been shown to suppress the synthesis of both TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the same manner as low-dose dexamethasone. Naturally occurring antiinflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 inhibit the synthesis of IL-1 and TNF-alpha and can be potential targets for therapy in OA. Augmenting inhibitor production in situ by gene therapy or supplementing it by injecting the recombinant protein is an attractive therapeutic target, although an in vivo assay in OA is not available, and its applicability has yet to be proven. Similarly, IL-13 significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha production by mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, but not in cells from inflamed synovial fluid. IL-13 has important biological activities: inhibition of the production of a wide range of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes/macrophages, B cells, natural killer cells and endothelial cells, while increasing IL-1Ra production. In OA synovial membranes treated with LPS, IL-13 inhibited the synthesis of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and stromelysin, while increasing IL-1Ra production.In summary, modulation of cytokines that control MMP gene up-regulation would appear to be fertile targets for drug development in the treatment of OA. Several studies illustrate the potential importance of modulating IL-1 activity as a means to reduce the progression of the structural changes in OA. In the experimental dog and rabbit models of OA, we have demonstrated that in vivo intraarticular injections of the IL-Ra gene can prevent the progression of structural changes in OA. Future directions in the research and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) will be based on the emerging picture of pathophysiological events that modulate the initiation and progression of OA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Bone Res
                Bone Res
                Bone Research
                Nature Publishing Group
                2095-4700
                2095-6231
                17 January 2017
                2017
                : 5
                : 16044
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center , Chicago, IL, USA
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University , St Louis, MO, USA
                [3 ]Department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                [5 ]School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Drexel University , Philadelphia, PA, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                boneres201644
                10.1038/boneres.2016.44
                5240031
                Copyright © 2017 The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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