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      Cellular motility driven by assembly and disassembly of actin filaments.

      Cell

      Actin Depolymerizing Factors, Signal Transduction, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Protein Structure, Secondary, metabolism, Phosphates, Models, Molecular, Models, Biological, Microfilament Proteins, ultrastructure, Keratinocytes, Dendrites, Crystallography, X-Ray, Cell Nucleus, Cell Movement, Cell Membrane, Cell Division, Cattle, Animals, Adenosine Triphosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate, physiology, chemistry, Actins

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          Abstract

          Motile cells extend a leading edge by assembling a branched network of actin filaments that produces physical force as the polymers grow beneath the plasma membrane. A core set of proteins including actin, Arp2/3 complex, profilin, capping protein, and ADF/cofilin can reconstitute the process in vitro, and mathematical models of the constituent reactions predict the rate of motion. Signaling pathways converging on WASp/Scar proteins regulate the activity of Arp2/3 complex, which mediates the initiation of new filaments as branches on preexisting filaments. After a brief spurt of growth, capping protein terminates the elongation of the filaments. After filaments have aged by hydrolysis of their bound ATP and dissociation of the gamma phosphate, ADF/cofilin proteins promote debranching and depolymerization. Profilin catalyzes the exchange of ADP for ATP, refilling the pool of ATP-actin monomers bound to profilin, ready for elongation.

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          12600310

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