Melanaphis sorghi (Theobald) (sorghum aphid), (=Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive pest of Sorghum bicolor (L.) in North America. Over 19 species of predators and parasitoids have been found to prey on M. sorghi. Natural enemies may reside in vegetation such as sorghum in cultivation (in-season) and persist after harvest (off-season), in Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense) (L.) and riparian areas consisting of shrubs and grasses, including Johnson grass. The objective was to assess the ability of these vegetation types to harbor M. sorghi natural enemies during and between annual grain sorghum production. Predator diversity was greatest in riparian vegetation in-season, with twelve species detected across seven families, and four orders of insects. Six lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species were abundant in-season, and Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) persisted at relatively high abundance off-season. Parasitoid diversity was more limited (two primary parasitoids and one hyperparasitoid detected) with the primary parasitoids commonly detected. Aphelinus nigritus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), accounted for 85% and 57% of parasitoids in- and off-season, respectively. Aphelinus nigritus abundance was steady across the annual sorghum season in all vegetation types. Results from this study will inform land-management strategies on how diverse vegetations can play a role in the biological control of M. sorghi.