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      Streptophage-mediated control of off-flavour taint producing streptomycetes isolated from barramundi ponds

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          Abstract

          Off-flavour taint of aquaculture products is a global issue reducing consumer confidence in the farmed produce as they are taken up via the gills of fish, and deposited in the lipids of the animal. If the fish are not purged, resulting undesirable muddy earthy flavour taint can be tasted by consumers. These undesirable flavour and odour is caused by the terpenoid compounds namely geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, produced as secondary metabolites by certain bacteria including the cyanobacteria and actinomycetes. Current strategies to remediate the problem rely on treating the symptoms not the cause and involve the use of time consuming purging methods and costly chemicals.

          Biological control using bacteriophages, specific to the problem causing bacteria, offers a natural alternative to chemical control, which might reduce further complications of copper based algaecides and its subsequent implications on water quality. In an adaptation of such biological control approach streptomycetes isolated from barramundi ponds were tested for their susceptibility to streptophages to understand whether host destruction via phage lysis would subsequently eliminate off-flavour taint productions by these isolates.

          Following the determination of the streptophage susceptibility of the isolates one of the most odourous streptomycete species (USC-14510) was selected to be tested further using different pond simulations resembling real-life applications. Geosmin was tested as the indicator of off-flavour taint production and as it has been previously reported that the cyanobacteria-actinomycete interactions occurring in ponds result in even greater levels of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, the geosmin levels for the isolate in the presence of cyanobacteria and streptophages were also tested. Findings indicated that the highly odourous Streptomyces species (USC-14510) once infected with streptophages, can lose its capacity to produce off-flavour taints. Pond simulation studies also revealed geosmin production was significantly reduced when streptophages were introduced into the pond water where streptomycete species were grown. The bacteriophage control method developed in the presented study might again confirm significant potential for the bacteriophage-mediated remediation strategy to be adapted by the aquaculture industry.

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          Most cited references 41

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            Cd-hit: a fast program for clustering and comparing large sets of protein or nucleotide sequences.

            In 2001 and 2002, we published two papers (Bioinformatics, 17, 282-283, Bioinformatics, 18, 77-82) describing an ultrafast protein sequence clustering program called cd-hit. This program can efficiently cluster a huge protein database with millions of sequences. However, the applications of the underlying algorithm are not limited to only protein sequences clustering, here we present several new programs using the same algorithm including cd-hit-2d, cd-hit-est and cd-hit-est-2d. Cd-hit-2d compares two protein datasets and reports similar matches between them; cd-hit-est clusters a DNA/RNA sequence database and cd-hit-est-2d compares two nucleotide datasets. All these programs can handle huge datasets with millions of sequences and can be hundreds of times faster than methods based on the popular sequence comparison and database search tools, such as BLAST.
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              ARB: a software environment for sequence data.

              The ARB (from Latin arbor, tree) project was initiated almost 10 years ago. The ARB program package comprises a variety of directly interacting software tools for sequence database maintenance and analysis which are controlled by a common graphical user interface. Although it was initially designed for ribosomal RNA data, it can be used for any nucleic and amino acid sequence data as well. A central database contains processed (aligned) primary structure data. Any additional descriptive data can be stored in database fields assigned to the individual sequences or linked via local or worldwide networks. A phylogenetic tree visualized in the main window can be used for data access and visualization. The package comprises additional tools for data import and export, sequence alignment, primary and secondary structure editing, profile and filter calculation, phylogenetic analyses, specific hybridization probe design and evaluation and other components for data analysis. Currently, the package is used by numerous working groups worldwide.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Synth Syst Biotechnol
                Synth Syst Biotechnol
                Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
                KeAi Publishing
                2405-805X
                2405-805X
                02 May 2017
                June 2017
                02 May 2017
                : 2
                : 2
                : 105-112
                Affiliations
                [a ]Genecology Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia
                [b ]Innovative Food Technologies, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Health and Food Sciences Precinct, Block 10, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Brisbane, QLD, 4108, Australia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. ikurtbok@ 123456usc.edu.au
                Article
                S2405-805X(17)30034-0
                10.1016/j.synbio.2017.04.002
                5636946
                Crown Copyright © 2017 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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