Tomasz Walski 1 , 2 , * , Anna Drohomirecka 2 , 3 , Jolanta Bujok 2 , 4 , Albert Czerski 2 , 4 , Grzegorz Wąż 2 , 5 , Natalia Trochanowska-Pauk 1 , 2 , Michał Gorczykowski 6 , Romuald Cichoń 5 , Małgorzata Komorowska 1 , 2
31 May 2018
Aim: An activation of non-specific inflammatory response, coagulation disorder, and blood morphotic elements damage are the main side effects of the extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Red-to-near-infrared radiation (R/NIR) is thought to be capable of stabilizing red blood cell (RBC) membrane through increasing its resistance to destructive factors. We focused on the development of a method using low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the spectral range of R/NIR which could reduce blood trauma caused by the heart-lung machine during surgery.
Methods: R/NIR emitter was adjusted in terms of geometry and optics to ECC circuit. The method of extracorporeal blood photobiomodulation was tested during in vivo experiments in an animal, porcine model (1 h of ECC plus 23 h of animal observation). A total of 24 sows weighing 90–100 kg were divided into two equal groups: control one and LLLT. Blood samples were taken during the experiment to determine changes in blood morphology [RBC and white blood cell (WBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hgb)], indicators of hemolysis [plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHgb), serum bilirubin concentration, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity], and oxidative stress markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration, total antioxidant capacity (TAC)].
Results: In the control group, a rapid systemic decrease in WBC count during ECC was accompanied by a significant increase in RBC membrane lipids peroxidation, while in the LLLT group the number of WBC and TBARS concentration both remained relatively constant, indicating limitation of the inflammatory process. These results were consistent with the change in the hemolysis markers like PFHgb, LDH, and serum bilirubin concentration, which were significantly reduced in LLLT group. No differences in TAC, RBC count, and Hgb concentration were detected.
Conclusion: We presented the applicability of the LLLT with R/NIR radiation to blood trauma reduction during ECC.