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      Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Levels in Healthy Children

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          Measurement of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels is used during the assessment of a child for the presence of growth hormone (GH) deficiency and to monitor the efficacy of GH replacement therapy. In either case, robust normative data are required to allow IGF-I values to be expressed as standard deviation scores, enabling comparison between individuals and assessment of change over time. However, IGF-I levels in healthy children are affected by a number of parameters, including age, gender, pubertal status, height, nutrient intake, body composition, intercurrent illness and ethnicity, and the generation of such data requires the collection of samples from significant numbers of healthy children. As external quality assurance schemes for IGF-I and an international standard based on authentic recombinant IGF-I are not widely used, it is imperative for the clinician to understand the performance characteristics and limitations of the IGF-I assay used and to be aware of the source and quality of control data. It must also be recognized that IGF-I measurement is only one component of the diagnostic process and has its limitations, as tissue sensitivity to circulating serum IGF-I levels will differ between individuals.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the principal source of IGF-I in blood but is not required for postnatal body growth in mice.

          The body growth of animals is regulated by growth hormone and IGF-I. The classical theory of this regulation is that most IGF-I in the blood originates in the liver and that body growth is controlled by the concentration of IGF-I in the blood. We have abolished IGF-I production in the livers of mice by using the Cre/loxP recombination system. These mice demonstrated complete inactivation of the IGF-I gene in the hepatocytes. Although the liver accounts for less than 5% of body mass, the concentration of IGF-I in the serum was reduced by 75%. This finding confirms that the liver is the principal source of IGF-I in the blood. However, the reduction in serum IGF-I concentration had no discernible effect on postnatal body growth. We conclude that postnatal body growth is preserved despite complete absence of IGF-I production by the hepatocytes.
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            Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults: relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size, and body mass index

             A Juul (1994)
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              A polymorphism in the gene for IGF-I: functional properties and risk for type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction.

              Evidence is accumulating that low levels of IGF-I play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We examined the role of a genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene in relation to circulating IGF-I levels and growth measured as body height, and we studied the relationship of this polymorphism with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction. The relation between the IGF-I polymorphism and body height was assessed in a population-based sample of 900 subjects from the Rotterdam Study. Within each genotype stratum, 50 subjects were randomly selected for a study of the relation of this polymorphism with serum IGF-I levels. To assess the risk for type 2 diabetes, we studied 220 patients and 596 normoglycemic control subjects. For myocardial infarction, 477 patients with evidence of myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram and 808 control subjects were studied. A 192-bp allele was present in 88% of the population, suggesting that this is the wild-type allele from which all other alleles originated. Body height was, on average, 2.7 cm lower (95% CI for difference -4.6 to -0.8 cm, P = 0.004), and serum IGF-I concentrations were 18% lower (95% CI for difference -6.0 to -1.3 mmol/l, P = 0.003) in subjects who did not carry the 192-bp allele. In noncarriers of the 192-bp allele, an increased relative risk for type 2 diabetes (1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.7]) and for myocardial infarction (1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.5]) was found. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the relative risk for myocardial infarction in subjects without the 192-bp allele was 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-11.3). Our study suggests that a genetically determined exposure to relatively low IGF-I levels is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                10 March 2005
                : 62
                : Suppl 1
                : 2-7
                aUniversity of Manchester, Endocrine Science Research Group; bDepartment of Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, UK
                80752 Horm Res 2004;62(suppl 1):2–7
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 6


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