1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Altered Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Components in an Immature Rat Model of Chronic Stress : Neuroendocrine alterations due to chronic stress in immature rat

      , , , ,

      Journal of Neuroendocrinology

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders.

          There is increasing evidence for an important role of adverse early experience on the development of major psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an endogenous neuropeptide, is the primary physiological regulator of the mammalian stress response. Grown nonhuman primates who were exposed as infants to adverse early rearing conditions were studied to determine if long-term alterations of CRF neuronal systems had occurred following the early stressor. In comparison to monkeys reared by mothers foraging under predictable conditions, infant monkeys raised by mothers foraging under unpredictable conditions exhibited persistently elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of CRF. Because hyperactivity of CRF-releasing neurons has been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain human affective and anxiety disorders, the present finding provides a potential neurobiological mechanism by which early-life stressors may contribute to adult psychopathology.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Regulation of pituitary ACTH secretion during chronic stress.

            Maintenance of adequate levels of response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress is important for survival. Three basic patterns of response can be identified depending on the type of stress: (a) desensitization of ACTH responses to the sustained stimulus, but hyperresponsiveness to a novel stress despite elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels, as occurs in physical-psychological paradigms; (b) no desensitization of ACTH response to the repeated stimulus and hyperresponsiveness to a novel stress, as occurs during repeated painful stress and insulin hypoglycemia; and (c) small and transient increases in ACTH, but sustained elevations of plasma corticosterone and diminished ACTH responses. The level of response of the pituitary corticotroph is determined by differential regulation of the hypothalamic regulators, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP), and the sensitivity of the negative glucocorticoid feedback. While osmotic stimulation increases VP expression in magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus, chronic stress paradigms with high pituitary responsiveness are associated with activation of CRH and CRH/VP parvicellular neurons of the PVN, predominantly of the VP-containing population. While moderate increase of CRH output is important for stimulation of POMC transcription, the increase of the VP:CRH secretion ratio appears to be important in maintaining the secretory capacity of the pituitary corticotroph during chronic stimulation. Decreased sensitivity of the glucocorticoid feedback, probably due to interaction of glucocorticoid receptors with transcription factors induced by CRH and VP, is critical for the maintenance of ACTH responses in the presence of elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels during chronic stress. Although both CRH and VP receptors are activated and undergo regulatory variations during chronic stress, only the changes in VP receptor levels are parallel to the changes in pituitary ACTH responsiveness. The inhibitory effect of chronic osmotic stimulation on ACTH secretion in spite of high circulating levels of VP is probably the result of diminished activity of parvicellular PVN neurons and downregulation of pituitary VP receptors. Although the exact interaction between regulatory factors and the molecular mechanisms controlling the sensitivity of the corticotroph during adaptation to chronic stress remain to be determined, it is clear that regulation of the proportional secretion of CRH and VP in the PVN, modulation of pituitary VP receptors, and the sensitivity to feedback inhibition play a critical role.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Abnormal corticosterone regulation in an immature rat model of continuous chronic stress.

              Neuroendocrine correlates of chronic stress in human infants have not been established. The goal of the present study was to create an animal model of continuous chronic stress using the immature rat to measure basal plasma corticosterone, and secretion of plasma corticosterone in response to an acute stress. This was achieved by modulation of the cage environment for rat pups and their mothers. During postnatal days 2-9, pups were maintained in three groups: (1) handled, (2) not handled and with ample bedding; and (3) not handled with limited bedding. On postnatal day 9, some pups from each group were subjected to acute cold-separation stress and were killed 90, 240, or 360 min later along with unstressed controls. The group not handled and with limited bedding manifested increased plasma corticosterone output even without cold exposure and a sustained increase of plasma corticosterone after cold-separation stress. Plasma corticosterone interanimal variability was increased and body weight was decreased in these pups, typical of a state of chronic stress. The first model of continuous stress in infant rats in which upregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is achieved without maternal separation is presented. This paradigm may more closely approximate the human situation of chronically stressed, neglected infants.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neuroendocrinology
                Wiley
                09538194
                13652826
                September 2001
                July 07 2008
                : 13
                : 9
                : 799-807
                Article
                10.1046/j.1365-2826.2001.00698.x
                © 2008

                Comments

                Comment on this article