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      Health related quality of life among adolescents with premenstrual disorders: a cross sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Premenstrual disorders usually refer to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This study was designed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian adolescents with premenstrual disorders.

          Methods

          This was a cross sectional study. A sample of adolescent schoolgirls aged between 14 and 19 years were included in the study. Premenstrual disorders were indicated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion and were compared among subgroups of the study sample.

          Results

          In all 602 female students were studied. All students reported at least one premenstrual symptom. Of these, 224 (37.2%) met the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Comparing the SF-36 scores between female students with and without PMDD, it was found that there were significant differences between these two groups in all measures (P < 0.001) except for physical functioning (P = 0.274). These differences were more evident on role emotional, role physical, social functioning and bodily pain.

          Conclusion

          The study findings affirm the fact that adolescents with premenstrual disorders suffer from poor health-related quality of life. In order to improve quality of life in female adolescents appropriate support should be provided for this population especially for those who suffer from more severe premenstrual disorders.

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          Most cited references25

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          Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: quality of life and burden of illness.

          Premenstrual symptoms are distressing for up to 20% of reproductive-aged women and are associated with impairment in interpersonal or workplace functioning for at least 3-8%. Typical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and the severe form, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, include irritability, anger, mood swings, depression, tension/anxiety, abdominal bloating, breast pain and fatigue. The symptoms recur monthly and last for an average of 6 days per month for the majority of the reproductive years. For women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder, the symptoms can be as disabling as major depressive disorder. It has been estimated that affected women experience almost 3000 days of severe symptoms during the reproductive years. Until two decades ago, there were no effective treatments for severe premenstrual syndrome. Even in 2000, almost three-quarters of women in the USA with premenstrual disorders either did not seek help or sought treatment unsuccessfully from at least three clinicians for over 5 years. This review will focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment outcomes, quality of life and burden of illness for premenstrual disorders.
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            Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: definitions and diagnosis.

            Because of the prevalence, chronicity and distress caused by premenstrual symptoms (PMS), diagnosis and effective treatments are important information for clinicians. The DSM-IV requires at least five specified symptoms for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe dysphoric form of PMS, while the ICD-10 requires only one distressing symptom for a diagnosis of PMS. Many women who seek treatment fall between these two diagnostic approaches, and standard diagnostic criteria for clinically significant PMS are needed. A diagnosis of PMS consists of determining the timing of the symptoms in relation to menses, meaningful change between post- and premenstrual symptom severity and a clinically significant severity of the symptoms. A differential diagnosis to distinguish PMS from other medical and psychiatric conditions is important for appropriate treatment. No hormone or laboratory test indicates a PMS diagnosis. The current diagnostic standard requires confirmation of subjective symptom reports by prospective daily diaries. Diagnostic criteria for PMS must recognize the broad range of symptoms, the temporal pattern of the symptoms and the critical issue of symptom severity, which differentiates clinically significant PMS from normal menstrual cycle changes.
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              Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central
                1477-7525
                2012
                1 January 2012
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Depratment of Health Education, Medical School, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Biostatistics, Medical School, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Centre, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
                Article
                1477-7525-10-1
                10.1186/1477-7525-10-1
                3281794
                22208808
                866f82b8-ea1e-47b3-891a-70d3b3424b65
                Copyright ©2012 Delara et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 August 2011
                : 1 January 2012
                Categories
                Short Report

                Health & Social care
                Health & Social care

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