43
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Prevalence of diabetes recorded in mainland China using 2018 diagnostic criteria from the American Diabetes Association: national cross sectional study

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Objective

          To assess the prevalence of diabetes and its risk factors.

          Design

          Population based, cross sectional study.

          Setting

          31 provinces in mainland China with nationally representative cross sectional data from 2015 to 2017.

          Participants

          75 880 participants aged 18 and older—a nationally representative sample of the mainland Chinese population.

          Main outcome measures

          Prevalence of diabetes among adults living in China, and the prevalence by sex, regions, and ethnic groups, estimated by the 2018 American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and history of disease were recorded by participants on a questionnaire. Anthropometric and clinical assessments were made of serum concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (one measurement), two hour plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c).

          Results

          The weighted prevalence of total diabetes (n=9772), self-reported diabetes (n=4464), newly diagnosed diabetes (n=5308), and prediabetes (n=27 230) diagnosed by the ADA criteria were 12.8% (95% confidence interval 12.0% to 13.6%), 6.0% (5.4% to 6.7%), 6.8% (6.1% to 7.4%), and 35.2% (33.5% to 37.0%), respectively, among adults living in China. The weighted prevalence of total diabetes was higher among adults aged 50 and older and among men. The prevalence of total diabetes in 31 provinces ranged from 6.2% in Guizhou to 19.9% in Inner Mongolia. Han ethnicity had the highest prevalence of diabetes (12.8%) and Hui ethnicity had the lowest (6.3%) among five investigated ethnicities. The weighted prevalence of total diabetes (n=8385) using the WHO criteria was 11.2% (95% confidence interval 10.5% to 11.9%).

          Conclusion

          The prevalence of diabetes has increased slightly from 2007 to 2017 among adults living in China. The findings indicate that diabetes is an important public health problem in China.

          Related collections

          Most cited references26

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

          Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation.

            The classification of diabetes mellitus and the tests used for its diagnosis were brought into order by the National Diabetes Data Group of the USA and the second World Health Organization Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus in 1979 and 1980. Apart from minor modifications by WHO in 1985, little has been changed since that time. There is however considerable new knowledge regarding the aetiology of different forms of diabetes as well as more information on the predictive value of different blood glucose values for the complications of diabetes. A WHO Consultation has therefore taken place in parallel with a report by an American Diabetes Association Expert Committee to re-examine diagnostic criteria and classification. The present document includes the conclusions of the former and is intended for wide distribution and discussion before final proposals are submitted to WHO for approval. The main changes proposed are as follows. The diagnostic fasting plasma (blood) glucose value has been lowered to > or =7.0 mmol l(-1) (6.1 mmol l(-1)). Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is changed to allow for the new fasting level. A new category of Impaired Fasting Glycaemia (IFG) is proposed to encompass values which are above normal but below the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes (plasma > or =6.1 to or =5.6 to <6.1 mmol l(-1)). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) now includes gestational impaired glucose tolerance as well as the previous GDM. The classification defines both process and stage of the disease. The processes include Type 1, autoimmune and non-autoimmune, with beta-cell destruction; Type 2 with varying degrees of insulin resistance and insulin hyposecretion; Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; and Other Types where the cause is known (e.g. MODY, endocrinopathies). It is anticipated that this group will expand as causes of Type 2 become known. Stages range from normoglycaemia to insulin required for survival. It is hoped that the new classification will allow better classification of individuals and lead to fewer therapeutic misjudgements.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants

              Summary Background One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. Methods We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes prevalence—defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7·0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs—in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes target if post-2000 trends continue. Findings We used data from 751 studies including 4 372 000 adults from 146 of the 200 countries we make estimates for. Global age-standardised diabetes prevalence increased from 4·3% (95% credible interval 2·4–7·0) in 1980 to 9·0% (7·2–11·1) in 2014 in men, and from 5·0% (2·9–7·9) to 7·9% (6·4–9·7) in women. The number of adults with diabetes in the world increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (28·5% due to the rise in prevalence, 39·7% due to population growth and ageing, and 31·8% due to interaction of these two factors). Age-standardised adult diabetes prevalence in 2014 was lowest in northwestern Europe, and highest in Polynesia and Micronesia, at nearly 25%, followed by Melanesia and the Middle East and north Africa. Between 1980 and 2014 there was little change in age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adult women in continental western Europe, although crude prevalence rose because of ageing of the population. By contrast, age-standardised adult prevalence rose by 15 percentage points in men and women in Polynesia and Micronesia. In 2014, American Samoa had the highest national prevalence of diabetes (>30% in both sexes), with age-standardised adult prevalence also higher than 25% in some other islands in Polynesia and Micronesia. If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global target of halting the rise in the prevalence of diabetes by 2025 at the 2010 level worldwide is lower than 1% for men and is 1% for women. Only nine countries for men and 29 countries for women, mostly in western Europe, have a 50% or higher probability of meeting the global target. Interpretation Since 1980, age-standardised diabetes prevalence in adults has increased, or at best remained unchanged, in every country. Together with population growth and ageing, this rise has led to a near quadrupling of the number of adults with diabetes worldwide. The burden of diabetes, both in terms of prevalence and number of adults affected, has increased faster in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Funding Wellcome Trust.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: senior lecturer
                Role: senior lecturer
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Role: professor
                Journal
                BMJ
                BMJ
                BMJ-UK
                bmj
                The BMJ
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                0959-8138
                1756-1833
                2020
                28 April 2020
                : 369
                : m997
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and the Institute of Endocrinology, First Hospital of China Medical University, 155 Nanjing Bei Street, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, China
                [2 ]Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
                [3 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China
                [4 ]Department of Endocrinology, Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, Hainan, China
                [5 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shannxi, China
                [6 ]Department of Endocrinology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
                [7 ]Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
                [8 ]Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
                [9 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
                [10 ]Department of Endocrinology, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, P.R. China, 750004
                [11 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
                [12 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
                [13 ]Department of Endocrinology, Hohhot First Hospital, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China
                [14 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
                [15 ]Research Centre of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
                [16 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fujian Institute of Endocrinology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China
                [17 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
                [18 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
                [19 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China
                [20 ]Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Science Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [21 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of An Hui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
                [22 ]Department of Endocrinology, First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan, China
                [23 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
                [24 ]Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
                [25 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, People’s Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa, Tibet, China
                [26 ]Department of Endocrinology, Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital, Xining, Qinghai, China
                [27 ]Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
                [28 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China
                [29 ]Department of Endocrinology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China
                [30 ]Department of Endocrinology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China
                [31 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China
                [32 ]Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and the Institute of Endocrinology, Rui-Jin Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [33 ]Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: W Teng twp@ 123456vip.163.com
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6445-6192
                Article
                liyo054529
                10.1136/bmj.m997
                7186854
                32345662
                867dc16d-31b2-4c13-9931-98bc1bae3f22
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                History
                : 03 March 2020
                Categories
                Research

                Medicine
                Medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article